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Chemistry Spring Semester Review

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  1. Chemistry Spring Semester Review Chem Spring Final Review

  2. Test Format • 90 multiple choice • Each question holds the equal weight • Answer sheet (pencil) • ~2 hours Chem Spring Final Review

  3. Final Schedule • 6/1: Per. 1 and 5 • 6/2: Per. 3 and 4 • 6/3: Per. 2 and 6 Chem Spring Final Review

  4. Recommendations • Study old review sheets • Especially mult. choice • Know your ochem/biochem • Time your stoich problems Chem Spring Final Review

  5. Review of the Units: Unit 8: Gas Laws Chem Spring Final Review

  6. Review of the Units: Unit 9: Condensed states of matter Chem Spring Final Review

  7. Review of the Units: Unit 10: Solutions Chem Spring Final Review

  8. Review of the Units: Unit 11: Thermodynamics Chem Spring Final Review

  9. Review of the Units: Unit 12: Equilibrium Chem Spring Final Review

  10. Review of the Units: Unit 13: Acids and bases Chem Spring Final Review

  11. Review of the Units: Unit 14: Electrochem and nuclear chem Chem Spring Final Review

  12. Review of the Units: (Unit 15): Organic and biochemistry Chem Spring Final Review

  13. Unit 8 Chem Spring Final Review

  14. Unit 8 Know the properties of gases. Know the difference between a real gas and an idea gas Chem Spring Final Review

  15. Unit 8 Know the K.M.T. Behaviors of gases can be determined by using gas laws Chem Spring Final Review

  16. Unit 8: Gas Laws Boyle’s (P,V) Charles’ (V,T) Gay-Lussac’s (P, T) Combined (P,V, T) Avogadro’s (V, n) Chem Spring Final Review

  17. Unit 8 Ideal: PV=nRT Dalton’s: P1 + P2 = Pt Graham’s Law of Effusion Chem Spring Final Review

  18. Unit 8 At STP, one mole of gas = 22.4 liters. The T is 273 K and P is 101.3 kPa. Chem Spring Final Review

  19. Unit 8 Gas Collection Lab How to calculate percent error? (act. – theo)/theo x 100% Chem Spring Final Review

  20. Unit 9 Chem Spring Final Review

  21. Unit 9 Key terms to know: critical pt., normal f.p., normal b.p., triple pt., critical pressure Chem Spring Final Review

  22. Unit 9 More terms: liquid, solid, gas, vaporization, boiling, freezing, deposition, melting, condensation, sublimation & evaporation Chem Spring Final Review

  23. Unit 9 Intermolcular forces: (strong to weak) Hydrogen (HNOF) dipole-dipole  London forces Chem Spring Final Review

  24. Unit 9 Mixtures: homogeneous includes solutions Heterogeneous includes suspensions and colloids Chem Spring Final Review

  25. Unit 9 What increase the rate of dissolving? Chem Spring Final Review

  26. Unit 9 Types of solids: metallic, ionic, covalent network and molecular Chem Spring Final Review

  27. Unit 9 Vapor pressure: It’s higher if the boiling point is lower Depends on temperature and intermolecular force Chem Spring Final Review

  28. Unit 9 Evaporation takes place when there’s enough kinetic energy for molecules to overcome their intermolecular forces Chem Spring Final Review

  29. Unit 10 Chem Spring Final Review

  30. Unit 10 Solutions are made of a solute (minor) and a solvent (major) Saturated, unsaturated and supersaturated Chem Spring Final Review

  31. Unit 10 “like dissolves like” Polar substance will dissolve other polar substances (water will dissolve salt, but not oil) Chem Spring Final Review

  32. Unit 10 Concentration measure how much solute is in a solution Molarity: moles/Liters Molality: moles/kg Chem Spring Final Review

  33. Unit 10 % Conc: mass solute/mass of solution x 100% Chem Spring Final Review

  34. Unit 10 Colligative properties “binding” F.P. depression, B.P. elevation, osmotic pressure and V.P. lowering Chem Spring Final Review

  35. Unit 10 ∆Tf= Kf x m Solubility rules Dilution: M1V1 = M2V2 Electrolytes: ions in solution Chem Spring Final Review

  36. Unit 11 Chem Spring Final Review

  37. Unit 11 Heat vs. temperature Heat (Joules / cal) Temp (oC / K) Chem Spring Final Review

  38. Unit 11 Know about enthalpy, entropy and free energy Enthalpy describes the amount of heat absorbed (+∆H) or released (+∆H) in a reaction Chem Spring Final Review

  39. Unit 11 Enthalpy cannot be directly measured. So we measure the change in enthalpy. Chem Spring Final Review

  40. Unit 11 Energy profile graphs Activated complex, change in enthalpy, presence of a catalyst, activation energy Chem Spring Final Review

  41. Unit 11 +∆H = endothermic - ∆H = exothermic +∆S = disorder -∆S = order +∆G = nonspontaneous -∆G = spontaneous Chem Spring Final Review

  42. Unit 11 Specific heat: the amount of heat needed to raise one gram of a substance one degree Celsius (or one Kelvin). Chem Spring Final Review

  43. Unit 11 Rate laws are determined by using the concentrations of reactants that influence the reaction time Slow step! Chem Spring Final Review

  44. Unit 12 Chem Spring Final Review

  45. Unit 12 Equilibrium: opposing chemical and physical changes occurs at equal rates Chem Spring Final Review

  46. Unit 12 Equilibrium can be shifted by changing the pressure, temperature or concentration of the system Le Châtelier’s Principle Chem Spring Final Review

  47. Unit 12 Equilibrium expressions [products] Keq = ------------- [reactants] Chem Spring Final Review

  48. Unit 12 Equilibrium expressions only include concentrations in the gas state Large K = favors products Chem Spring Final Review

  49. Unit 13 Chem Spring Final Review

  50. Unit 13 Acids are proton donors (Brønsted-Lowry) Acids taste sour, corrode metal, turn litmus paper pink and have a pH < 7 Chem Spring Final Review