flower arrangement on floral axis inflorescence n.
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  1. FLOWER ARRANGEMENT ON FLORAL AXIS: INFLORESCENCE Presented by: Dr. ManinderKaur Associate Professor, Botany Department, Government College for Girls, Sector-11, Chandigarh

  2. INFLORESCENCE • Many trees do not bear their flowers separately but in groups closely together. These groups of flowers and their associated stems are called inflorescences. • The stem that bears a single flower or an inflorescence is called the peduncle. The peduncle of an inflorescence may have smaller stems called pedicels • The pedicels may bear the flowers as in the example on the left, or they may have further small branches which bear the flowers, in which case the inflorescence is said to be compound. A diagram of a generalised inflorescence

  3. Types of Inflorescence • Racemose Type: The main axis grows indefinitely giving rise to younger flowers in an acropetal order. • Cymose Type: The apical bud is a flower. The younger flowers are borne below it, in a basipetal manner. • Special Inflorescence

  4. Capitulum Rachis Flattened Racemose Inflorescence Rachis Shortened Umbel Rachis Suppressed Corymb Rachis Elongated Sessile Flowers Pedicillate Flowers Spadix Spikelet Spike Catkin Raceme Panicle

  5. Capitulum Rachis Flattened Rachis Shortened Rachis Suppressed Corymb Umbel Rachis Elongated Sessile Flowers Pedicillate Flowers Raceme Panicle Spike Catkin Spadix Spikelet

  6. Solitary Cymose Inflorescence Polychasial Dichasial Monochasial Scorpoid • Helicoid

  7. Solitary cyme Cymose Inflorescence Dichasial cyme Polychasial cyme Monochasial cyme Scorpoid Helicoid

  8. Special Inflorescence Cyathium Verticillaster Hypanthodium

  9. Raceme Stalked flowers are borne acropetally on an elongated rachis. e.g. Mustard, Radish.

  10. PANICLE Flowers borne not directly on the axis but on its branches. e.g. Alfalfa Alfalfa Panicle inflorescence of alfalfa

  11. SPIKE Like a raceme but flowers are without stalk.e.g. Achyranthes Simple Spike- Achyranthes aspera Compound Spike-Amaranthus spinosus

  12. SPADIX Rachis is thick and fleshy and the flowers are covered by one or more spathy bracts e.g. Musa indica (banana) Musa indica

  13. CATKIN Spike in which the axis is thin and weak. These are unisexual inflorescences and usually deciduous e.g. Morus alba (Mulberry) Morus alba Carya texana

  14. SPIKELET 1-5 flowers are present in a spikelet, which are subtended by lemma (br.), palea (brls.) and glumes e.g. Triticum vulgare (wheat) Triticum vulgare

  15. CORYMB Axis not elongated. All the flowers are placed almost at the same level, the lower flowers having longer pedicels. e.g. Iberis amara (candy tuft) Iberis amara

  16. UMBEL Axis is suppresed and the flowers usually have pedicels equal in length, forming a cluster e.g. Foeniculum vulgare (saunf) Foeniculum vulgare Geranium

  17. CAPITATE The axis is suppressed and a large number of sessile flowers arise from it forming a globose structure e.g. Acacia, Mimosa Albizia julibrissin (Mimosa)

  18. CAPITULUM Rachis forms a flattened or convex receptacle on which the florets are arranged e.g. Helianthus annus (sunflower) Helianthus annus

  19. SOLITARY Axillary bud forms a single flower e.g. Hibiscusrosa sinensis (shoe flower) Hibiscusrosa sinensis

  20. MONOCHASIAL CYME Main axis terminates in a flower and one lateral branch develops from its base also ending in a flower e.g. Heliotropium Heliotropium

  21. DICHASIAL CYME Two lateral branches develop on two sides of the terminal flower. Lateral branches may again branch e.g. Dianthus Dianthus

  22. POLYCHASIAL CYME More than two branches develop on the two sides of the terminal flower e.g. Calotropis procera (Ak) Calotropis procera

  23. CYATHIUM Extremely reduced unisexual florets are placed on convex receptacle covered by a cup shaped green involucre. Central female flower is the biggest surrounded by a large number of male flowers e.g. Euphorbia pulcherrima(Poinsettia), Euphorbia pulcherrima

  24. VERTICILLASTER The opposite leaves at the nodes, bear dichasial cymes in their axils. The sessile flowers are clustered together appearing like a whorl around the stem e.g. Ocimum sanctum (tulsi) Ocimum sanctum

  25. HYPANTHODIUM Cup-shaped receptacle formed by the condensation of the rachis of closely placed cymes. The receptacle forms a vessel with a terminal opening and flowers inside it in cymose groups e.g. Ficus Ficus

  26. Thank you