overpopulation • Condition in many developing countries where the population is too large to be supported by the available resources of the region.
Pan-Africanism Nationalistic movement which emphasized the unity of all Africans, and sought to end foreign control.
oligarchy • Form of government in which a small group or elite has power.
Pax Mongolia Also known as the Mongol Peace. A time when global trade expanded due to the political stability provided by Mongol rulers, especially during the rule of Kublai Khan.
pharaoh In ancient Egypt, title given to the ruler who was considered both king and god.
perestroika Russian term for reconstructing. A policy of Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev to revitalize the Soviet economy by opening it up to more free enterprise.
Pan-Arabism Nationalistic movement which emphasized the unity of all Arabs, and sought to end foreign control in the Middle East.
per-capita income • Average income per person of all the citizens in a country; one way to measure the standard of living of a country.
Peninsulares In colonial Latin America, Spanish official sent to govern Latin American colonies. They controlled government completely.
peaceful coexistence • Soviet policy adopted by Nikita Khrushchev in the 1950’s, believing that communism & democracy could exist with each other peacefully and avoid hostility.
oral tradition • The practice of passing on history and culture of a society through the spoken word.
peasants • Small farmers or laborers who work the land.
Planned or Command Economy • System in which the government determines what, how much, and who is allowed to receive the goods that are produced; used by the Soviet Union from 1927 until the 1980’s.
patrician A member of the upper class of ancient Roman society.
Pax Romana A 200 hundred year period of relative peace throughout the Roman Empire. Occurs during the first two centuries C.E..
Pan Slavism Nationalistic movement which emphasized the unity of all Slavic peoples, and sought to end foreign control of various Slavic nations. (Eastern Europe)
patriarchy • Family organization in which the father or eldest son heads the household. Image: Abraham & Son by Rembrandt
passive resistance • Form of nonviolent civil disobedience; used by Gandhi in India- boycotted British goods, refusal to pay taxes or serve in the army to promote Indian independence. Also used by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. in the U.S. in the 1960’s civil rights movement.
parliamentary system A form of government where the citizens elect members to represent them in a parliament, or legislative assembly.
Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) • Group formed in 1964 & led by Yasir Arafat to form a Palestinian homeland by using terrorist tactics against Israel. They later renounced terrorism but, many observers doubt this is sincere.