Muscles that Move the Head Sternohyoid, Sternocleidomastoid, Splenius Capitis, and Levator Scapulae
Sternohyoid Origin: Manubrium, costal cartilage 1 Insertion: Hyoid Action: Involved in swallowing and speaking by pulling down the hyoid bone.
Stretching and Strengthening • What do you think??
Sternocleidomastoid • Origin: Manubrium, anterior superior surface of medial clavicle • Insertion: Mastoid process • Action: Extension of the head, felxion of the cervical spine. Right side: Rotation to the left and lateral flexion to the right. Left Side: Rotation to the rightand lateral flexion to the left • Basically, neck flexion and rotation of the head and neck.
Stretching Strengthening • Lower left shoulder; turn head 45° to left, place right hand fingertips on forehead • Exhale; gently drop head back toward the opposite side (right) • Assist stretch with right hand for 2 seconds
Splenius Capitis • Origin: Lover half of ligamentumnuchae and spinous process of the 7th cervical and upper 3 or 4 thoracic vertebrae • Insertion: Mastoid process and occipital bone • Action: Extension of the head. Right side: rotation and lateral flexion to the right Left Side: rotation and lateral flexion to the left
Stretching and Strengthening http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=20IKKKmgO6Q Stretching: The entire muscle can be stretched with maximal flexion of the head and cervical spine. The right side can be stretched through combined movement of left rotation, left lateral flexion, and flexion. And vice versa for the left side.
Levator Scapulae Origin: Transverse processes of the upper four cervical vertebrae Insertion: Medial border of the scapula above the base of the scapular spine Action: Elevates the medial margin of the scapula
Strengthening and Stretching • Rotate head 45 degrees to opposite side and flex the cervical spine while maintaining the scapula in a relaxed depressed position. • Shoulder exercises
Injuries:Sternohyoid • Overuse injuries, tears, and strains • Whiplash
Injuries:Sternocleidomastoid When the SCM is strained or shortened the muscle itself rarely hurts, no matter how stiff or tight it may be. Problems are referred elsewhere, to head and neck, ears, eyes, nose and throat. These may be mistakenly diagnosed as migraine, sinus headache, atypical facial neuralgia, trigeminal neuralgia, arthritis of the sternoclavicular joint, ataxia, multiple sclerosis (MS), brain lesions, tumors, and other frightening conditions.
Injuries:SpleniusCapitis • The Splenius capitis is almost always injured in auto accidents, regardless of the direction of the blow. They are commonly injured in "head rolling" movements in exercise classes, always strained by head forward position and by computer use or other reasons for sitting with head held forward and turned to the side. Splenius capitistypically causes a pain at the top lateral side of head
Injuries:Levator Scapulae • Common site for tightness, tenderness, and discomfort secondary to chronic tension and from carrying items with straps over the shoulders.