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Introduction • Welcome and thank you for taking the time to come along for this meeting and to watch this presentation. • Thank you for your interest regarding training with the Driving Instructor Academy. At both the Academy and the DLA we have a fantastic success rate. At the DLA we specialize in personal professional tuition. We have over 25 years of teaching experience and are registered and approved by the Driving Standards Agency. We operate under their Code Of Practice for Approved Driving Instructors, which ensures that all our business dealings are done clearly and professionally. • The following presentation will take you through both the theory and hazard perception test details. It will help you understand what is expected of you on the exam day. • The Driving Standards Agency sets and oversees all three parts of the examination process to enable Candidates to qualify as Approved Driving Instructor
The Rules • To begin with, you must have held a full driving license in category B (manual cars) for at least 4 of the last 6 years. You must not have been disqualified during this time. • Be able to read a car number plate from a minimum distance of 90 feet. • Your licence should be free of endorsements, although certain allowances may be made. Anybody with serious criminal convictions cannot be accepted. • You must also be a ‘fit and proper’ person. This relates to convictions not spent under the rehabilitation of offenders act. • You must pass a searching three-part examination. This comprises of theory, driving and instructional ability. • The tests: • Before you can train people to drive, you must pass three main qualifying exams. You have up to 2 years to qualify from the date you pass the ADI Part 1 test. • 1. Theory test - Hazard Perception Test - ADI Part 1 • 2. Test of driving ability - ADI Part 2 • 3. Test of instructional ability - ADI Part 3 • Please note: IF YOU TAKE A TRAINEE LICENCE, IT IS OBLIGATORY THAT YOU RECEIVE 20 HOURS ADDITIONAL TRAINING/SUPERVISION DURING THE LICENCE PERIOD (UP TO 6 MONTHS). THIS HAS TO BE CERTIFICATED IN ORDER FOR YOU TO TAKE YOUR PART 3 TEST. THIS IS AT AN ADDITIONAL FEE.
ADI Part 1 Theory Test • This part of the DSA theory test consists of 100 multiple choice questions. The test is completely computer based. With each question is a list of potential answers. You need to select the correct answer, or answers, by touching the appropriate area of the computer screen. You will be given about 40 minutes to complete the test. • The questions are banded into four sections and you must score 80% in each band and achieve an overall mark of 85% to pass. This means that it is possible to get a score of 94% and still fail if you are weak in a particular band of knowledge. In order to pass Part1 you also need to attain a pass mark of 57 in the HPT. If you do not achieve this you will have to do the whole test again, including the theory test, even if you gained 85% or higher in the questions. • Before you start, a video tutorial will explain how the test works and what you have to do. You will be given the opportunity to do some practice questions to make sure you are comfortable with the computer screens. • You move from one question to the next by touching the buttons at the bottom of the screen. To select an answer you press the button on the screen which is next to it. The answer will then be highlighted with a blue background. To deselect an answer simply touch the answer button on the screen again. This will cause the highlighted blue background to disappear, and you will be free to make a different selection. • The red text in the top left hand corner will tell you how many answers to mark (i.e. to select). The red text will flash if you have not selected sufficient answers and try to move onto another screen. If you press again it will let you move on even if you still haven’t supplied sufficient answers. In this case the question will be recorded as incomplete.
You can flag a question so that you can review it later. To do this you will need to press the flag button at the bottom of the screen. This will cause the flag button to turn red. • At any point you can call up the review screen by pressing the review button. This screen enables you to check all the questions and your answers from the start of the test. Or you can just review the questions you flagged or those questions that are incomplete. You will also need to press the review button so that you can end the test. To end the test you press the end test button on the review screen. • The test will end if you run out of time. The time you have left to finish answering the questions is shown at the top right hand side of the question and answer screen. • Before you press on the end test button in the review screen, make sure that the number of complete questions equals 100, the same as the total number of test questions. • If you haven’t answered all the questions, review those questions not fully answered or not attempted, and any that you have flagged. Incomplete questions require you to select one or more answers until you have marked the required number as indicated by the red text in the top left hand corner of the question and answer screen. • If you have completed all the questions in the test, and provided you have the time, it is worth the effort of reviewing all your answers again before pressing the end test button. You can do this by pressing the “Review All” button on the review screen. • Once you have completed the test you will be given the option of taking a 3 minute break before you move on to the next part of the test, the hazard perception test. • Note: There are no restrictions on how many times you can take the Theory and HPT.
ADI Part 1 Hazard Perception Test • For this part of the test you will view 14 video clips on the computer screen. They last about a minute each. You need to watch these clips as if you were the driver of the car, don't just think of it as a video game! • In all there will be 15 hazards to find - at least one on each clip, but one clip will have 2 hazards. • You can click the left or right mouse button whenever you think you can see a hazard developing. The test requires you to spot what the DSA call ‘developing hazards’. These are hazards that could become dangerous situations very soon, just as you are driving up to them. The speed at which you click the mouse button as a hazard develops will determine your score for each hazard clip. You can score between 0 and 5 on each hazard. Therefore the maximum you can score is 75 (i.e. 15 hazards x 5). To pass you need a score of 57. • The hazard perception test will start with a short video played on the computer screen that will explain how the hazard perception test works and what you need to do. At the end of this clip you have the option to go onto the test or play the tutorial again. • The hazard clips start with a count down from 10, to make sure that you are ready. The clip will start to play and you have to click the mouse button each time you see a developing hazard. • Each time you click for a developing hazard, a red flag 'marker' appears at the bottom of the screen - one flag appears for each click you make in any clip. At the end of the clip all the flags are cleared before you start the next clip.
Each clip contains several potential hazards, but only the one that materialises into a developing hazard is marked. • Usually, the developing hazard is quite obvious . . . once you’ve seen it!! • You will only receive a score if you spot the hazard before it develops, and click at the right time. • The score you obtain depends on how quickly you spot the developing hazard. The time from when you first see the developing hazard, to the point at which you reach the hazard is the period used to determine your score. This is sometimes referred to as 'the marking window' • The marking window is divided into 5 equal periods. If you click the mouse while in the first section when the developing hazard first appears, you will obtain the maximum score of 5 points. If you click in the second segment you will score 4 points, then 3, then 2 and then in the last segment, 1. • Don’t try to cheat the system by clicking the button repeatedly throughout the video clip because the computer will pick this up. If the computer believes you are cheating you will score zero for that clip. The computer may think that you are cheating if you click too 'rhythmically' or too quick. • At the end of the test you will have to leave the room and collect your score for the two parts of the exam. The maximum score that can be obtained for the hazard perception part of the theory test is 75 (i.e. 15x5). To pass the hazard perception part of the ADI part 1 test you need to score 57 points. To pass the theory test you must pass both the multiple choice part and the hazard perception part. If you fail either part you will need to take both parts of the test again. • Some of these hazards will not develop any further so you will not receive a score for spotting them. • Of course, the developing hazard only becomes obvious after it’s developed . . . so make sure that you click as early as possible for each hazard that you think might develop. This way, you ensure that you maximise your potential marks for the hazard clip. • The secret is to recognise the hazard that may just start to develop, then anticipate when it will develop. Time your clicks appropriately.
Guidance To Help You Pass The ADI Part 1 Exam • Make sure you have read your study materials thoroughly that your tutor has provided • There are no shortcuts to effective study • Many people fail through lack of preparation • Most people find that studying for short periods is more effective • We would recommend that you spend no more that 15/20 minutes with each study period, any more than that, your brain may start to 'switch off' • When you start a new study period, its best to briefly go over your last study section - that will help you to remember the last piece of information you had read • Try to find the best period to study, preferably when it’s quiet and with no distractions • Try to find the best time of day when you are most receptive to absorbing information, preferably not just before going to bed! • As there is a lot of information to learn, its not recommended to leave it to the last minute, and 'cramming' it. • Try to aim for a pass of around 92/93 correct answers on a mock test quiz - the more correct answers, the better your chances of passing the real Part 1 ADI test • Before you go into the test centre, find somewhere quiet, close your eyes and just think to yourself for a few moments, what it means to pass the test, and what you have done to achieve that. When you have done that, with your eyes still closed, breath in very deeply and slowly for around five times. That will help to relax you, and put you in the right frame of mind. • Make sure you read the questions carefully. You may find that a question would refer to "should" instead of "would". For example: When should you sound your horn? Instead of: When would you sound your horn? • If you're not sure of an answer, you can 'flag' it and go back later if you have time
ADI Part 2 Test of Driving Ability • The driving ability test is the first of the two practical tests. It can only be booked and taken after you can you have passed the ADI part 1 Theory Test. You are only allowed three attempts to pass the ADI part 2 driving ability test or you will have to wait 2 years from the time you passed the ADI part 1 theory test and start the whole process again starting with the theory test, so make sure you are ready. • The Car You Take To Test • The car you use for the test should be taxed and insured for test purposes. It should have seat belts in good working order and an adjustable rear view mirror, forward facing seat and head restraint for the examiner. The car must have a manual transmission and be in good working order. The car must not display L-plates. If your car does not meet the required standards the test will not take place. • Proof Of Identity • You must take with you your driving licence. If you have the new style photo-card licence you must present both the photo-card and the counterpart. If you still have the old style paper licence you must take your passport as proof of identity. If you do not have the correct form of identity the test will not take place.
The Eyesight Test • Before the driving test starts you will be required to complete an eyesight test. You must be able to read, with glasses or contact if you normally wear them, a number plate chosen by the examiner. • You must be able to read the old style number plate (with letters and numbers 79mm in height and 57mm wide) at a distance of 27.5 meters. • You must be able to read the new style number plate (with letters and numbers 79mm in height and 50mm wide) at a distance of 26.5 meters • If you cannot successfully complete this test the rest of the test will not take place and you will have been deemed to have failed the test. • Vehicle Safety Questions • Next you will be asked safety questions about the car generally known as "show me tell me". This is a relatively new part of the ADI part 2. You will be asked to show the examiner how to carry out some routine checks and tell the examiner how you would carry out others, hence the name show me tell me.
The Drive • During the driving test you will drive on different types of road and encounter varying volumes of traffic. You will also be asked to complete all of the manoeuvres listed below and maybe an emergency stop. The test will last about one hour, the key points are: • Move away: Safely and under control from the side of the road, on the level, from behind a parked vehicle and if possible on a hill all with correct observations. • Emergency stop: promptly and under control. • Manoeuvres: Turn in the road; reverse parking, reverse into an opening (reverse round a corner) with control and good all round observations with the correct response to other road users. • Use of mirrors: Regular checks to ensure that you are aware of the presence of other road users and act appropriately to their actions. Early use of mirrors should be made before signalling, before changing direction and before changing speed either slowing down or accelerating as part of the mirror, signal, manoeuvre routine. • Use of signals: Appropriate and in good time to warn other road users of their intentions. • Response to signs and signals: Pupils should understand and be able to react to all traffic signs and road markings and react to signals given by police officers, traffic wardens, school crossing patrols and other road users. • Use of speed: Safe and reasonable use of speed according to road signs and speed limits, the road, weather and traffic conditions. • Following distance: A safe distance must be maintained from the vehicle in front in all road, traffic and weather conditions including stopping in queuing traffic. • Progress: Pupils must show that they can drive at appropriate speed for the road type and speed limit, density of traffic, weather and visibility. All hazards and junctions should be approached safely without undue hesitation; all safe opportunities to proceed should be taken. • Junctions: The correct procedure to be applied to all types of junctions with the application of the mirror, signal, manoeuvre routine. The correct lanes and observation to be carried out and response to other road users demonstrated. • Judgement: You should not make any other rod user slow down, stop or swerve when meeting, overtaking or turning across other traffic. • Positioning: Correct position should be maintained at all times according to type of road, the direction being taken and the presence of obstructions such as parked vehicles. • Clearance of obstructions: Adequate clearance to be given to parked vehicles and other obstructions. • Pedestrian crossings: Pupils should be able to recognise and deal with, safely, different types of crossings. • Position for normal stops: Pupils should be able to choose a safe, legal andconvenient place. • Planning and awareness: You must show that you can plan ahead and anticipate the actions of other road users and drive with due care and consideration to other road users with special emphasis to venerable road users.
The examiner will mark any driving faults on the test sheet. You are allowed to get 6 driving faults, no serious and no dangerous driving faults. Should you get more than 3 driving faults in anyone of the above criteria it will be classed as a serious driving fault as it will be seen as a bad habit rather than just a one off mistake. • A driving fault would be something like a missed mirror check, a badly timed signal or a slight deviation from the normal driving line. • A serious driving fault would be pulling out from a junction and causing another car slow down, putting a wheel on the pavement during a reverse around a corner or not using adequate observation whilst reversing into a parking bay. • A dangerous driving fault would be pulling of a junction and causing another to brake or swerve harshly (a near miss), driving through a red traffic light or driving too fast for the road, weather or traffic conditions. If the examiner considers that you are too unsafe to continue the driving test, they are quite within their rights to stop the test wherever you are and walk back to the test centre. • So how do you pass the driving test? There's no secret. You just have to know how to drive and prove it to the examiner. All of the above criteria for the driving test can be condensed into one phrase. To demonstrate that you can drive safely, in control and with due care and consideration to other road users.
A few notes on Eco-Friendly driving • There are many ways to conserve energy and save money when driving. We are primarily concerned with getting a better fuel consumption from each thankful be it Petrol or Diesel or the still very rare Bio ethanol. • Let’s start with a favourite subject…Tyres and move on to the Feet, followed by the Engine and its Occupants and Loading. • 1)Under inflated Tyres enjoy a greater friction with the road leading to increased gas usage for each kilometre travelled. As well as this they wear out much more rapidly, give a rougher ride, particularly on Irish rural roads and generally upset the overall handling of the car, not to mention a less than comfortable ride for the passengers. • 2)Over inflated tyres also wear out rapidly and unevenly leading to more frequent replacement and a bumpy ride for the occupants. Good for the tyre shop but not for you! Oh yes a soft tyre will pick up foreign bodies much more easily, leading to further replacement and expense. • 3)An Untrained and Runaway Right Foot is a leading cause of excessive expenditure during all driving activity. Accelerating too hard, braking too hard, and driving too fast in general all contribute to excessive Fuel and Brake usage and the corresponding increase in noxious emissions. Good driving techniques have quite a beneficial effect on the environment and good servicing habits also reap rewards. • 4)The speed for optimum fuel consumption has been recognised over the years to be 55mph or approximately 90kph. As you increase your speed above this level your fuel consumption increases dramatically. Yes I know it’s fun to be cruising at full speed (legally) but remember you are burning up precious fuel. • 5)The early use of fifth gear when the road is either clear or traffic well spaced out and moving steadily, will drop the engine r.p.m significantly and reduce fuel consumption. New generations of quality cars now come with6 gearsbut the principle holds true that the sooner you get into the higher gear having gained sufficient momentum the better it is for the engine and the less pressure you need to exert on the gas pedal. Major savings can be made in this area by experimenting with the speed at which the engine will pull smoothly in fifth gear without stress. Once you have discovered the lowest optimum speed at which you can sustain the higher gear without labouring the power train then get into the habit of it. It’ll be good for the engine, good for your Bank Balance and will have a beneficial effect on other driving techniques by increasing your awareness.
6)A poorly tuned engine will also use an excessive amount of fuel so the money spent on proper professional servicing will repay you in the end although at the time it may seem expensive. The rev counter is a very useful tool in keeping an eye on the peak performance of the engine so get used to checking the needle at tick over speed once the engine has warmed up fully. A slight increase over the recommended tick over revs, which is ignored, will mean unnecessary wasting of fuel. Make sure you adhere to the Manufacturers service cycle recommendations. • 8)Carrying piles of rubbish in either the cab or the boot of your car will increase your fuel consumption steadily over time so give your boot a make over every so often and clear it out of all but the essentials. You could of course always send your offspring to boarding school (rare Institutions these days) or simply refuse to take them anywhere thereby cutting down on the weight of your vehicle. This would not be a popular move even if you were able to convince them of the Eco Advantages! • 9)One more point about tyres. If you are carrying extra passengers and luggage, even for a short journey you should increase the tyre pressures. This will give a smoother, safer ride for all concerned and avoid excessive tyre wear. This latter point is particularly relevant if you are planning on rural driving since you will have to deal with an especially Irish phenomenon, that of Potholes. These terrors of the Rural Highway seem to have developed immunity to every possible trick that the road crews throw at them. Filled one minute and back larger than life the next! Especially after heavy rain which is a not infrequent occurrence throughout the Island. Sometimes these are as big as a garden pond and will damage your underside easily, not to mention the ecological impact of disturbing the resident fish, frogs and other amphibians as you plough through them. • 10)Since we seem to be constantly exposed throughout the country to major road works, which is an admirable activity from a safety perspective, you should always switch off your engine if there is going to be more than a minor delay. Sitting for several minutes with the engine running wastes a lot of fuel and puts more greenhouse gas into the atmosphere than need be. If you are aware of a significant hold up to the traffic ahead then it’s important to keep your distance from the vehicle ahead (which you should be doing as a matter of course) which can prevent you from hitting the vehicle ahead when you are rear ended by a driver who is fast asleep or who hasn’t been watching sufficiently ahead. Three rear ends in the last couple of years indicates it is not a once inlifetime incident but a regular occurrence as drivers young and old get distracted by all manner of things totally unrelated to the job in hand.
ADI Part 3 Test of Instructional Ability Role play • Congratulations, you’ve successfully passed your first two exams and are now closer to your goal of being a fully qualified ADI. The next section we have set out what is expected of to become a fully trained, and competent ADI. By now you should have a good idea of what your new career entails. Now we bring together all of your new skills using a logical and systematic programme which you will continue to use once you pass your part 3. • During your training, your trainer will use the following format : • Firstly we need to teach basic sub-skills required to deliver each component part of the lesson; skills such as giving route directions, briefing, watching the driver, offering feedback, asking questions, etc. • Next we teach how the component parts fit together; how to structure a lesson, how to use the sub-skills to remedy errors, when to transfer responsibility to the 'pupil', etc. • Finally, when these basic skills are in place and have been demonstrated in isolation (i.e. not in the context of a full lesson), we can think about asking the student to deliver a PST type lesson. It's only at this stage that lesson content should become an issue.
The Part 3 exam is all about you and your lesson planning and how well you can control the lesson, your communication skills, your fault analysis and fault correction, your level of instruction, your use of the controls etc. The SE is looking for you to set the lesson objectives, deliver these objectives and to transfer some learning to the ‘pupil’. You must teach the SE like a real pupil. When the SE is marking your sheet the most important part is the right side, the core competencies, a low score in these boxes is often the reason for failure so follow your plan and keep control of the lesson. • The examiner will choose two of the following scenarios and ask the candidate to demonstrate their knowledge and ability by giving practical instruction to an examiner as if he or she were: • A novice or partly trained pupil; • A pupil who is at driving test standard; • A qualified driver taking driver development training.