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Improving Reception

Improving Reception

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Improving Reception

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  1. Improving Reception Engineering Design 100 – Section 16 Client-Driven Design Project Team 8 The Pennsylvania State University

  2. Presentation Synopsis • Positioning Statement • What we want to do and how we’re going to to it • Needs Analysis • What we think our country needs • Design Process • From concepts to the final design • Cost Analysis • Conclusion • Questions

  3. The “Masterminds” Gregory Borza Undeclared Class of 2014 Michael Babyk B.S. in Chemistry Graduate Work Electrical Engr. Andrew Reiff Undeclared Class of 2014 Richard Zang Undeclared Class of 2014

  4. Problem Statement • “The Challenge” • The main problem that us and the other Engineering Design 100 teams faced was that third-world countries such as Ethiopia really like using their cellular phones, but there is a small to nonexistent power grid. We were charged by GE to find a way to create a telecom base station that is powered by a clean and/or renewable energy source, and that uses GE’s newly produced Durathon battery.

  5. Positioning Statement • Adaptive Energy Management System (AEMS) • For the citizens of Gondar, Ethiopia, the AEMS is an efficient energy system that can be used to power a telecom base station. • Unlike a typical base station power system, the AEMS can run on renewable solar energy. • Our goal was to design a power system that was not only sustainable, but could adapt to changing conditions to get the most efficiency. Estimated Initial Costs - $153,275

  6. Design Timeline This timeline shows what we’ve been doing on our project, and when we’ve done something.

  7. Customer Analysis Gondar, Ethiopia Source: http://www.geographicguide.com/pictures/maps/ethiopia-map.gif

  8. Customer Analysis • As a country, Ethiopia has the second-least developed cellular phone market in Africa. • In Ethiopia, there are approximately 2.2 million users of cellular phones, as of 2008. • So, there’s a lot of room for growth. • Location, location location. • Gondar is located in an area with frequent windy days and frequent sunny days. • Perfect for renewable energy!

  9. Generation of Concepts • There are so many options for renewable energy usage in the city of Gondar, Ethiopia. • We did some research, and narrowed our options down to five.

  10. Generation of Concepts Solar Panels Only Solar panels capture the energy from the sun to be able to use in another form. The panels are rather expensive to produce, but once assembled are rather cheap to maintain. The solar intensity for a region like Gondar, Ethiopia is rather high, so the power output should be adequate.

  11. Generation of Concepts Wind Turbine Only Wind turbines utilize wind currents to spin a windmill and generate electricity. These turbines are pretty expensive to buy, but they do not require much maintenance once built. The average wind speed in Gondar, Ethiopia is fairly high which makes wind power a strong candidate.

  12. Generation of Concepts Diesel Generator Only A diesel generator uses fuel to create power. A generator to supply the energy needed would be very cheap to buy. The big downsides are the maintenance a generator would need and the cost and burden of continuously needing to add more fuel.

  13. Generation of Concepts Geothermal Energy Geothermal uses the heat from inside the earth to create steam from water. This steam is then utilized to spin turbines and produce electricity. This is an effective way to create energy but since we only need 1.2 kW, a geothermal system will most likely be too expensive.

  14. Generation of Concepts Wind/Solar Combination Since neither a wind turbine nor solar panels could supply enough power to run the tower on their own, a combination of the two could prove effective. The cost of such a system though would be extremely high.

  15. Selection of Concepts Reference

  16. Selection of Concepts After some initial scoring, we decide to not use geothermal or the combination of solar and wind. Both would be too expensive making them unrealistic compared to the other choices. Since neither solar or wind would be able to supply sufficient energy all the time, we decided to combine each with a generator that would run only when needed.

  17. Selection of Concepts Solar/Diesel Wind/Diesel Diesel Only

  18. Selection of Concepts Our team has selected the combination of solar power with a diesel generator. For a small scale project that needs only 1.2 kW, solar power is the best option. It may be a little more expensive than wind power, but it is much more dependable. Comparisons of wind and solar energy confirmed for us that solar power with a back up diesel generator, for times when there is no sun for days, is the best source of energy for this system.

  19. The AEMS • Adaptive Energy Management System • The AEMS uses three different sources of energy to power the telecom station. • The AEMS is adaptive – it is able to switch between power sources as the climate or time of day dictate. • The AEMS can switch between a total of three power modes.

  20. Model 1 – Hybrid Mode: No renewable energy, load drawn from batteries. If batteries empty, use generator. DC Load Base Telecom Station Fuel Generator Solar Energy EGenerator ECharge Controller EDC ESolar Charge Controller EInverter ECharge Edischarge DC/AC Inverter AC Load HVAC Lighting Durathon Battery EAC This mode is engaged when there is little to no solar energy available, such as during the night hours or during a storm.

  21. Model 2 – Solar Mode: Renewable energy less than loads, deficit drawn from batteries. If batteries empty, use generator. DC Load Base Telecom Station Fuel Generator Solar Energy EGenerator ECharge Controller EDC ESolar Charge Controller EInverter ECharge Edischarge DC/AC Inverter AC Load HVAC Lighting Durathon Battery EAC This mode is engaged the least of the time, because it is essentially a “transitional” mode.

  22. Model 3 – Charge Mode: Renewable energy exceeds loads, excess put into batteries. If batteries full, dump excess. DC Load Base Telecom Station Fuel Generator Solar Energy EGenerator ECharge Controller EDC ESolar Charge Controller EInverter ECharge Edischarge DC/AC Inverter AC Load HVAC Lighting Durathon Battery EAC This mode is engaged when too much energy is being delivered to the AC and DC loads. It charges the batteries with the excess energy. When the batteries are full, energy is dumped to assist Gondar’s already weak grid. This is the ideal mode for our system.

  23. Typical Daily Battery Cycle Charging Mode 2 Discharging Mode 3 AM

  24. The AEMS Hut and Tower The AEMS powers a tall monopole tower. The generator, battery, and wall air conditioning unit are inside the hut. You can’t see the generator that sticks out because of the angle of the image. Gondar, Ethiopia’s latitude is 12.6 degrees. Therefore, the solar panels are angled at 12.6 degrees from the horizontal, and they face north.

  25. ALL COSTS ARE ESTIMATED – IN USD ($) Cost Analysis

  26. ALL COSTS ARE ESTIMATED – IN USD ($) Cost Analysis

  27. ALL COSTS ARE ESTIMATED – IN USD ($) Cost Analysis The cost of diesel fuel is considering an average price of about $3.20 per gallon over a year. In the fuel’s case, we are considering the initial cost to be the first year’s cost, consuming an average of 86 gallons per year. The life expectancy varies depending on the specific part. Our revenue is considering that four cellular phone companies are given use of our telecom tower for the price of $24,000 per year per company.

  28. ALL COSTS ARE ESTIMATED – IN USD ($) Cost Analysis

  29. ALL COSTS ARE ESTIMATED – IN USD ($) Cost Analysis

  30. ALL COSTS ARE ESTIMATED – IN USD ($) Cost Analysis Initial Profit - $172,175 Profit after Year One - $ 61,650 Profit after Year Two $ 29,975 Profit after Year Three $121,600 Profit after Year Four $213,225 Average Yearly Profit $ 91,625

  31. Calculations of AW and NPV Be patient, this could get boring… Calculations are assumed based on the first-year cost of $172175, which is the initial cost, cost for fuel, and maintenance cost. Calculations are assumed using an MARR of .13. So, our average worth is 68155.7, and our net present value is $478,776.86.

  32. Cash Flow Diagram $63,350 $96,000/year 0 20 $4,500/year Once again… Calculations are assumed based on the first-year cost of $172175. Calculations are assumed using an MARR of .13. $172,175

  33. Conclusion • The AEMS is an efficient, renewable way to power a telecom base station in the country of Ethiopia. • Using a mix of a diesel generator, a solar panel array, and GE’s Durathon battery, the AEMS adaptively adjusts energy flow modes depending on the situation. • The AEMS can become profitable in as little as two years of operation. Receive

  34. Works Cited • There are too many sources to list on one – or even two – slides! • Our sources in MLA format can be found on this web page: • http://www.personal.psu.edu/rfz5006/Works%20Cited.html • This web page is the central hub for our project.

  35. Any Questions?