Ethics and The Professional Unit Eight
Welcome! • Any questions?
Demonstration Project • Write a 1 -2 page double-spaced position-paper in which you: • Clearly and concisely set forth your group's position on the issue; • Analyze the supporting materials you located in your research, demonstrating how they support or refute your group's position on the issue. You are required to locate at least five (5) sources. If you find sources that refute your group's position, be sure to explain how your group would counter the arguments presented in the source.
Demonstration Project Grading Rubric • Student clearly communicated his or her group's position on the issue. Student analyzed his or her research of five or more sources and demonstrated how they support or refute the group's position on the issue. • Technically flawless, mechanically and grammatically correct. Organization and structure of the paper are clear and easy to follow. Logical flow of ideas. Variety of sentence length and structure. Language rich, precise, and vivid.
Final Project • Keep working! • Final draft due by the end of unit nine.
Final Project Rubric • Through his or her research, the student identified and analyzed common themes and critical issues related to the chosen research topic. • The student then synthesized his or her research completely by proposing recommendations for improvements to practice and hypothesizing impacts to the profession. • Technically flawless, mechanically and grammatically correct. Organization and structure of the paper are clear and easy to follow. Logical flow of ideas. Variety of sentence length and structure. Language rich, precise, and vivid.
Practicum • Tonight is our practicum. • Pros will go first with their presentation, followed by the cons. • We will then have a debate.
Practicum • Pro Team First • Con Team Second
Pro Team Arguments For cloning
Cloning Ethics Slide Show Presentation
Human Cloning • Eager to study the effects of cloning on various aspects of modern life … illness and disease being a key area of interest. • Infertility patients and doctors have a special interest in cloning and are eager to make strides towards mainstreaming cloning. • Experimentation with animals and even human fetuses has been taking place since the early 1990’s. • Scientist are curious to see how far they can push the envelope on human nature.
Tampering with nature • As scientist look deeper into cell makeup and duplication previous stem cell research is used impart to support the idea that cloning and banking information will one day be the wave of the future.
Bio-Ethical Practices • Drug Companies may stand to lose an abundance of money and business if human cloning becomes mainstream. Replicating and infusing unharmed DNA to assimilate and replicate healthy cells healing genetic and environmental diseases.
Advantages • Healthy and effective organ donation would free dialysis patients in such a way that is unprecedented. • Producing children that are related even if the couple is not able to bear children in a traditional manner. • One of the websites researched brings up a good point of freezing original cells for later use in the event of tragedy or untimely death. • Living longer and enjoying a better quality of life due to scientific studies and progression. • The power and control to engineer cells for particular short comings, such as a cure for a sibling or relative even a genetic flaw passed on by the parent(s).
Ethical Dilemma • For every Pro there is a Con. With every risks there is an advantage. The issue of human cloning will ultimately be based on individual beliefs and the severity of specific situations that would make anyone question what would they do? • As science and technology advances and scientist find safer methods to perfect nature the popularity will soar and hopes are the risks will greatly decrease for all parties involved.
Cloning in other areas • Human cloning is just one kind of cloning that may be possible and seen as a norm in the near future. • Therapeutic human cloning would free the medical world of hurdles once thought of as impossible threats to human health. • There is also the cloning of foods such as rice, wheat, and soybeans.
Reproductive Cloning • Man would be in control of its own destiny on a molecular level • State mandates and the flourishing of a new industry would create a new field of practice and business. • Reproductive cloning would all but guarantee couples could reproduce and in fact engineer their baby from a zygote stage. • Many religious beliefs would impede the process and progress because it is indeed tampering with nature as only God has before.
Regulations • Safety regulations would have to be implemented for public safety as well as individual protections of rights and opinions. • Would other criteria for cloning be set forth as law ? • Would clones have the same rights as un-retouched humans? • These are all serious questions that need systems in place and answers for long before cloning is allowed.
Sources Cited Library.thinkingquest.org/24355/data/reactions/pro.html www.yenra.com/pros www.bootstrike.com/genetics/cloning/benefits.html
Global Effect • Cloning will have a global impact on the world if it is used, even in the most scientific manner. • Who will we hold responsible in the end?
Cloned Quite Possibly Kristen Dixon Pro Group
CON TEAM • Arguments Against Cloning
Human CloningLS-501-01: Ethics and the ProfessionalUnit 8: Group Collaboration: Arguments Against CloningKaplan UniversitySeptember 15th, 2010
What is Human Cloning? Human Cloning is defined by law in two ways 1) Reproductive cloning 2) Therapeutic cloning The National Conference of State Legislatures reports that 15 states have currently have legislation that pertains to human cloning. The NCSL is a respected advocate organization that helps facilitate state government activity prior to congress and federal intervention. http://www.ncsl.org/Default.aspx?TabID=305&tabs=1027,77,544#1027 http://www.ncsl.org/default.aspx?tabid=14284
State Law • Fifteen states have laws pertaining to human cloning • Arizona, Arkansas, California, Connecticut, Indiana, Iowa, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Missouri, Rhode Island, New Jersey, North Dakota, South Dakota, Virginia • States prohibiting reproductive cloning • Arkansas, Connecticut, Indiana, Iowa, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Rhode Island, New Jersey, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Virginia • Arizona and Missouri have measures that address the use of public funds for cloning • Maryland prohibits the use of state stem cell research funds for reproductive cloning and possibly therapeutic cloning • Louisiana also enacted legislation that prohibited reproductive cloning, but the law expired in July 2003 • States laws that extend their prohibitions to therapeutic cloning, or cloning for research purposes • Arkansas, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, North Dakota and South Dakota • Virginia's law also may ban human cloning for any purpose • It may be open to varying interpretations because the law does not define the term "human being," which is used in the definition of human cloning • Rhode Island law does not prohibit cloning for research • California and New Jersey human cloning laws specifically permit cloning for the purpose of research http://www.ncsl.org/default.aspx?tabid=14284
What is Reproductive Cloning? Reproductive cloning of a human being means making a genetic copy or duplicate of an existing person. The method used with animals involves the following steps: • taking the nucleus from a cell of an existing person, • putting this nucleus into a woman's egg from which nucleus had been removed, • stimulating the resulting entity so that it starts developing into an embryo, and • implanting that clonal embryo into a woman's womb to be brought to term. http://www.geneticsandsociety.org/article.php?id=3189
What is Therapeutic Cloning? http://www.ncsl.org/default.aspx?tabid=14284 http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-therapeutic-cloning.htm Therapeutic cloning is cell regeneration. It used to be known as somatic cell nuclear transfer. This biomedical practice is usually conducted for research or for legal methods of rehabilitation. Some forms are recognized as: Stem cell research Umbilical cord banking Therapeutic cloning stem cells
Cons of Reproductive Cloning • Evidence from cloning attempts in other animals demonstrates that reproductive cloning in human beings would be far too risky • The social risks it entails would make it an unjustifiable option • National Academies' report concludes that human reproductive cloning would be dangerous for the woman, fetus, and newborn, and is likely to fail. • The notion that a child who has died can be "replaced" with its clone is an insult to the lost child, to children in general, and to human dignity • The right to decide whether and when to have a child is far different than a right to determine the genetic makeup of a child or to obtain a child by any means possible. A "right to clone" would be a dangerous distortion of reproductive choice. http://www.yenra.com/pros-and-cons-of-human-cloning/ http://www.geneticsandsociety.org/article.php?id=3189
States and Cloning http://www.geneticsandsociety.org/article.php?id=3189 • Although reproductive cloning is prohibited in nearly a dozen states of the United States, there are no such laws at the national level. • Laws against human reproductive have been passed in dozens of countries, but not in all countries with advanced biotechnology industries. • That is why it must be proscribed at the international level, as well as by all individual countries. • Many nations have already prohibited reproductive cloning. There is no reason that the United States and the rest of the world cannot do the same.
Ethical discretion leads to State Laws banning Cloning • Reproductive cloning is strictly prohibited in over a dozen U.S. states. Federal law does not mandate legislation, and has left the authority to the states. • NJ permits cloning for research, but bans reproductive medicine because there are serious repercussions for this advanced medical practice. See NJ§2C:11A-1, NJ§26:2Z-2. • Each State that that allows scientific research of cell reproduction has created severe penalties described by law if there is a variance to simulate cell nucleus transfer, I.e. any form of human cloning. • Other countries have not prohibited reproductive cloning as we have in our U.S. This may be due to the ethical implications of creating a new human being. http://www.geneticsandsociety.org/article.php?id=3189 http://www.ncsl.org/default.aspx?tabid=14284
Ethical Theory Applied • Religious Ethics • Egoism • Self Interest • Utilitarianism • Kant’s Categorical Imperative • Organizational Utilitarianism • Groupthink References Shaw, W.H., & Barry, V. (2010).Moral issues in business (11th Ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.
Religious Ethics • Christian • A cloned child would only have the genetic material from one person, a purposely-manufactured child with truly only a single parent. • This represents a complete destruction of God's divine family plan. • All humans were planned and made by God, to be like God. Through cloning, man is seeking to create a human in his own image, to be like him. • Catholic The “golden rule” is something that is a constant plan usually tied to religion. Do unto others as would have them unto to you. • Confucianism What you do not want done to yourself, do not do to other. http://www.allaboutpopularissues.org/christian-ethics-and-cloning-faq.htm References Shaw, W.H., & Barry, V. (2010).Moral issues in business (11th Ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.
Ethical Theory Applied • Egoism and Self Interest compliment each other • Egoism focuses on a person’s self interest • Self interest does not account for any other moral conviction • Differences between Egoism/self interest and morality A person may choose to do what they want to do as compared to the best interest of another person or society. References Shaw, W.H., & Barry, V. (2010).Moral issues in business (11th Ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.
Ethical Theory Applied • Utilitarianism The Utilitarianism theory of ethics is a consequential theme. This theory focuses on the end result of a behavior. Utility supports the greatest good for the most people. This theory applied focuses on what would be in the best interests for the whole society. • Organizational Utilitarianism Utilitarianism in an organizational context still focuses on the end result like general utilitarianism. The real focus will be for the benefit of the organization. Changes can be made frequently to improve utility. This theory may be used to support cloning, i.e. hospital/doctor financial growth. • Groupthink A group action of ethical behavior that is not usually planned well. Inappropriate behavior may be the norm in an organizational context that is promoted by this groupthink mentality. This theory is a good defense to argue against cloning if our opposing team supports organizational utility of research cloning. References Shaw, W.H., & Barry, V. (2010).Moral issues in business (11th Ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.
Ethical Theory Applied • Kant’s Categorical Imperative The Categorical imperative is a non-consequential approach to ethics that focuses on the steps of the behavior reviewed. This theory contrasts to Consequential ethical theories in that the focus is not only on the end result of the conduct. • The Categorical Imperative The actions of behavior are reviewed to determine morality. There could be a great benefit that is the end result, but other factors are considered to determine ethical soundness. Universal acceptance of a behavior must be identified to be morally correct. References Shaw, W.H., & Barry, V. (2010).Moral issues in business (11th Ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.
Ethical Theory Arguments Against Cloning • Utilitarianism The Utilitarianism theory of ethics is a consequential theme. This theory focuses on the end result of a behavior. Utility supports the greatest good for the most people. This theory applied focuses on what would be in the best interests for the whole society. Diversity in society is something that adds to the greatest good for many, even at times when individuals do not believe in diverse groups of people. Under the utility of a society, all diverse groups of people would cease to exist. People would select the strongest DNA pattern or choose cloning parts that would keep them the same. This can be likened to the Hitler regime who searched for the perfect German citizen. It would be a very boring society. http://www.historyplace.com/worldwar2/riseofhitler/kampf.htm
Ethical Theory Arguments against Cloning • Kant’s Categorical Imperative The Categorical imperative is a non-consequential approach to ethics that focuses on the steps of the behavior reviewed. This theory contrasts to Consequential ethical theories in that the focus is not only on the end result of the conduct. The categorical imperative does not support human cloning. This biomedical procedure would have to be universally accepted, and it is not.
Ethical Theory Arguments Against Cloning • Groupthink A group action of ethical behavior that is not usually planned well. Inappropriate behavior may be the norm in an organizational context that is promoted by this groupthink mentality. This theory is a good defense to argue against cloning if our opposing team supports organizational utility of research cloning. Just because we have the technology available to create a new person, does not mean we have to. This groupthink mentality is the best defense against the overzealous science professional. There are many repercussions that need to be considered. In this hypothetical the clone is to be raised as a normal person, and parts are to be taken when needed. When is the cut off? What rights does the clone have? They can’t live in the U.S. as a slave to another for human parts, it violates the constitution.
Potluck • I’ll go first. My recipe is for Wacky Chocolate Cake. It is very simple, and contains so eggs or milk so it is good for those with allegories. • Ingredients: • 1 1/2 cups unbleached all-purpose flour • 1 cup sugar • 3 tablespoons unsweetened cocoa • 1 teaspoon baking soda • 1/2 teaspoon salt • 1 teaspoon vanilla • 1 teaspoon vinegar • 5 tablespoons vegetable oil • 1 cup cold water • Preparation: In a large mixing bowl, mix flour, sugar, cocoa, soda and salt. Make three wells in the flour mixture. In one put vanilla; in another the vinegar, and in the third the oil. Pour the cold water over the mixture and stir until moistened. Pour into 8 x 8-inch pan. Bake at 350°F. oven for 25 to 30 minutes, or until it springs back when touched lightly. • Okay! Who wants to go next?
Goodbye! • Any questions? • Remember that there are no seminars during units nine and ten. • Thank you all for a wonderful term! • I look forward to reading all of your final papers!