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  1. Roles: Occupational Intercultural Communication CMUN 4 Mrs. Waddell

  2. A Contextual Model of Intercultural Communication

  3. Roles • A role is a person’s relative position/rank in a group • Roles do not exist in isolation • Roles relate to other roles • Dictate communication • With whom • About what • How • Roles= expected behaviors • Formal • Defined (CEO) • Contractual • Informal • Less explicit • Behaviors must be learned through experience • Varies across cultures

  4. Roles • Four dimensions • Personal vs. Impersonal • Formality vs. Informality • Hierarchy • Deviation from ideal role • Family • Social • Occupational

  5. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Self Actualization:Living life to its fullest. Function as autonomous beings Esteem Need:The need for respect or esteem from self, or others Belongingness Need:The need to be a part of a group Survival Needs:Physiological/Safety

  6. Organizational & Culture • Shared assumptions, values, beliefs, language, symbols, and meaning systems that hold the organization together • Personality driven • Communication style impacts culture • Patterns of sustained communicative acts or behaviors • Defensive vs. Supportive environment • Is developed by the organization

  7. Organizational & Culture • Contextually based • Business • For profit • Regional • National • International • Not for profit • School • Healthcare

  8. Organizational & Culture Business • Each field attracts particular personality type • Reason for choice of occupation • Cultural rules govern negotiation of business practices internationally • Rules for doing business • Formality vs. informality • Family and work • Mexico: okay to handle family problems at work • US: Separation of family and work issues • Use of time • Individualistic: Time is money • Collectivist: Time needed to build rapport

  9. Organizational & Culture School • Attracts particular personality types per academic field • Reason for choice of occupation • Serve a variety of functions • Shape individuals • For community/citizenship • For business/economic value • Teach informal cultural content/culture specific values • Problematic in diverse societies • Language • Dominant languages • Strategic languages

  10. Organizational & Culture Healthcare • Attracts particular personality type • Reason for choice of occupation • Intercultural issues • Nudity • Disclosure/openness • Verbal vs. nonverbal communication vs. culture • Concept of illness differs across culture • High technology societies: illness can be treated • Use of technology/funds available • Low technology societies: Cause of illness within individual • Make person comfortable/Illness runs its course • Traditional healing methods/technology unavailable

  11. Group workMeyers & Briggs Personality Profile • Which profile fits a leader? • List qualities • Is there a different Meyers Briggs type for each context? • Business • School • Healthcare

  12. Extroverted • Relates more easily to the outer world of people and things • Life is an open book • Gather’s energy with people • Expends energy • Thinks out loud • Many friends • Many topics INVENTOR /ENTP THE RATIONALS Intuitive • Would rather look for possibilities and relationships • Prefers new skills • Works with bursts of energy • Attracted by the future • Looks for possibilities • Hunches/Speculative Thinking • Judgments based more on impersonal analysis and logic • Linear Perceiving • Likes a flexible, spontaneous way of life • Experiencing life • Accepting of the world • Prefers options • Resistance to decisions • Deadlines are a time to get started • Life happens--deal with it • Spontaneous, fluid

  13. Power and Influence • Organizational culture impacts and is impacted by the power and influence of its members

  14. Power Bases • Legitimate Power • Those elected/chosen • Referent Power • Those we allow to have power because we admire them • Expert Power • Those with knowledge/experience • Reward Power • Those able to reward other’s performance (grades) • Coercive Power • Those able to use threats/blackmail

  15. Status Status is a position in society that carries with it certain distinct behaviors and abilities. • High Status • Age/Beauty • Position • Talent (celebrities) • Low Status • Age/Beauty • Gender • Introverted/Social unease • Position

  16. Roles • Legitimate • Hired • Promoted • Assigned • Illegitimate • Default • Coercive

  17. Different value placed on gender. • Males most often inherit power • …and keep it (rarely is this not the case). • This is known as PATRIARCHY • men have afforded themselves most of the social power in almost every society known. • Social Learning Theory • We are rewarded for conforming expectations • We are punished for behavior that meets with disapproval. • Disapproved behavior is extinguished.

  18. Primary Groups: fulfill basic need to associate with others ·Family ·Friends

  19. Secondary Groups:accomplish a task, or achieve a goal ·Problem solving ·Decision making

  20. COMPARING GROUPS AND TEAMS

  21. ROLES • Roles function to help groups achieve their goals. • Roles include Task and Process types • Roles can be • Determined: mother/father/child • Assigned: As situation where a higher authority has determined your role in that group • Emergent: Roles we assume based on the negotiations and interactions of a group and its members

  22. Thetask of the group is defined by what it aims to achieve The process of the group describes how it actually works Tasks and process are sides of the same coin. Neither operates in isolation from the other. For the task-based goals to occur, a suitable process method must be developed, or chosen by the group. Task and process drive each other Establishment and incorporation of rules and norms Task vs. Process

  23. IDENTIFYING NORMS Explicit vs. Implicit Norms • Explicit: • In writing • Verbally • Wearing name badge • Implicit: • Rarely discussed • A result of group interaction • group meeting is set for 6:00, but members do not arrive until 6:15. • Violation of implicit norms are sensed via nonverbal/verbal reaction of members towards the violator

  24. Changing Norms Norms can be changed: • Contagious behavior, dress, speech patterns • Actions or suggestions of those with most influence • Suggestions from outsiders • Group decision/discussion (explicit norms) • Interaction of members (implicit norms)

  25. Group discussion What are the roles that have been used in this classroom? What are the norms used in the classroom? -Explicit -Implicit

  26. End of Presentation