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Meaningful Metrics – Understanding Engagement, Influence and Impact

Meaningful Metrics – Understanding Engagement, Influence and Impact

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Meaningful Metrics – Understanding Engagement, Influence and Impact

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  1. Meaningful Metrics –Understanding Engagement, Influence and Impact Jim Macnamara PhD, FPRIA, FAMI, CPM, FAMEC Professor of Public Communication University of Technology Sydney

  2. Engagement, influence and impact

  3. International standards initiative • Coalition for Public Relations Research Standards • Established 2011 by AMEC, IPR and CPRF • #SMMStandardsConclave • Established 2012 by Coalition members + 8 other PR/communication organizations • Global Alliance, PRSA, CIPR, IABC, SNCR, FIBEP, WOMMA, DAA • Working in consultation with eight companies • Dell, Ford, General Motors, McDonalds, Proctor & Gamble, Thompson Reuters, South-West Airlines, SAS • Also consulting with • Media Ratings Council, AAAA, ANA, Web Analytics Association • US and European Measurement Summits 2011–2013 key role

  4. Standards being developed to cover • Content sourcing and methods (outputs) • Interim Standards for Metrics in Traditional Media Analysis • #SMMStandards Sources and Methods Transparency Table • Reach and impressions (outputs) • Social Media Standard Definitions for Reach and Impressions • Engagement • Influence and relevance • Opinion and advocacy • Sentiment or tone (over-used and over-rated) • Impact and value http://www.smmstandards.org/

  5. Engagement – some key characteristics • Happens after output distribution and after reach (outtake) • Involves interaction between the organization and stakeholders • Qualitative as well as quantitative (can be positive or negative) • Occurs both offline and online

  6. Engagement • Commonly perceived (and counted) as including: • Visits • Page views • Clickthroughs • Likes • Follows • Shares • Retweets • Downloads • Comments • “Fragments of behavioural outcomes”

  7. Engagement • Engagement is a deep psychological concept • Involves passion, commitment, investment of oneself in discretionary effort (Erickson, 2008) • Three key elements of engagement • Psychologicalbond – may be rational, based on information, experience • Emotional (affective) involvement • Empowerment through participation (Erickson, 2008; Macey & Schneider, 2008)

  8. To influence behaviour Behaviour • Activism • Advocating • Voting • Getting fit, dieting, stop smoking, drive safely, etc • Buying a product or service • Trialling a product or service • Inquiry Social media Empowerment (e.g. participation, giving a say and listening) Affective/emotional response (e.g. joy, pleasure, fun, liking, etc) Psychological bond (e.g. pride) Satisfaction (product & relationship) Engagement Trust (key part of reputation) A “cornerstone” of all relationships Product or relationship satisfaction is essential, price of entry

  9. Higher level engagement • Positive comments posted • Linking • Participation in events • Regular interaction • Collaboration Attendees at Australia Day celebrations to promote national pride and identity 

  10. Influence • Occurs beyond engagement (outtakes outcomes) • Occurs when someone is persuaded to change an opinion or behaviour that they otherwise would not have changed • Needs to be relevant • Occurs in relation to specific issues, topics • Manifests offline and online • A single ‘influence score’ unlikely • Influence tangibly seen in: • Joining, supporting, endorsing, seeking your advice, subscribing, trialling, etc

  11. Impact and value (outcomes) • Occurs beyond influence – when desired behaviours are adopted • Value can be positive returns • Sales, reputation gain, membership increases, improved fitness, etc • Value can be negative returns • Risks avoided or costs saved • ROI is seen as problematic for PR/corporate communication • Predominantly used and seen as a financial/accounting measure • Wrongly calculated (ROI is $ return on capital expenditure/ total costs) • Not relevant to government, NGOs, non-profits • KPIs and scorecards can measure impacts and values • Impact must be linked to organization / business outcomes

  12. The final connection • Linking PR outcomes to organization / business outcomes • Holy Grail of PR THE CHALLENGES: • Organization/business outcomes are: • Macro level v micro activities • Often well downstream from PR activities • May be long-term • Almost always the result of multiple inputs and outputs

  13. Linking to organization/business outcomes Profit Sustainability People Planet Profit Sales Cost control Product development Staff retention Triple Bottom Line Customer retention Regulator support Audit systems Product quality Product quality Customer testing R&D Innovation Design Staff morale & culture Community relations Staff comms (newsletter, intranet) Community support Staff recognition Brand awareness Customer service Accounts review Meetings; consultation Staff award scheme Customer newsletter, social media Activist relations Pay & conditions Sales experience Customer communication • LOGIC MODEL: • Organization/business outcomes are high level with multiple contributors • PR (and many other functions) contribute indirectly • Identify the sub-outcomes unpinning business outcomes and which created by PR – a two-step or three-step flow of effects Product preference Product reviews/ publicity

  14. Questions & Discussion