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Diseases in Anatomy and Physiology

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  1. Diseases in Anatomy and Physiology Unit C

  2. Essential Standard 5.00 Discuss the role of major systems of small animals.

  3. Objective 5.02 • Discuss the ways that disease processes affect major body systems.

  4. Infectious Diseases of Dogs • Group of diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms • Canine distemper • Canine parvovirus infection • Kennel cough • Rabies • Canine brucellosis • Salmonellosis

  5. Canine Distemper • Caused by the inhalation of the airborne virus. • Symptoms: • Early-vomiting and diarrhea • Later-tremor and epileptic fits

  6. Canine Parvovirus Infection • Caused by viral contact of materials contaminated with feces from infected dogs • Affects mostly young pups • Symptoms: • Vomiting • Bloody diarrhea • Refusal to eat

  7. Kennel Cough (Tracheobronchitis) • Respiratory disease contracted in confinement (pet shops, dog shows, kennels, etc.) • Symptom: • Cough

  8. Rabies • Viral disease that attacks the central nervous system. • All warm blooded animals can transmit rabies.

  9. Rabies Symptoms • Occur 2 weeks to 3 months after bite. Severe can be within 10 days. • Furious rabies-animal may act strange then wander off, attack and bite anything in its path, often frothing at the mouth • Dumb rabies-no wandering, but paralysis of lower jaw followed by body paralysis and death

  10. Canine Brucellosis • Bacterial disease spread through breeding • Females • Abortion • Failure to whelp • Enlargement of lymph nodes • Males • Swelling of scrotum and testicles

  11. Salmonellosis • Bacterial disease spread by ingestion of food contaminated by feces.

  12. Basic Noninfectious Diseases of Dogs

  13. Heart Disease • 2 types • Congenital (birth) • Contracted • Symptoms • Coughing at night during sleep • Coughing during exercise • Inability to exercise • Open mouth breathing at rest

  14. Cataracts • Cause cloudy, white opacity of the lens. • Can be hereditary or not • Can cause blindness • More often affects older dogs

  15. Arthritis • Degenerative joint disease that causes pain, lameness, and stiffness in the joints. • Large, old and obese dogs are more prone to the disease.

  16. Basic Fungus Diseases of Dogs

  17. Ringworm • Most common fungal disease. • Symptoms: • Broken hairs around the face, ears or feet. • Reddened skin and scaly skin develop. • Crusting and scaling in severe cases.

  18. Blastomycosis • Inhaling infected spores of soil enriched with bird or bat droppings. • Symptoms: • Coughing • Rapid breathing • Pneumonia • Fever

  19. Internal Parasites of Dogs

  20. Ascarids or Roundworms • May grow to 8 inches in length when mature • Affect mainly puppies and deprive them of nutrients • Transmitted by female dogs to puppies • Severe infestation causes pot-bellied appearance • Danger to children

  21. Hookworms • Blood-sucking parasites that attach to the small intestine, causing small spots of bleeding • Adult worms attach to the small intestine where they digest a plug of tissue. • Heavy infestations cause the animal to appear weak, listless, and anemic • Affects older dogs and puppies

  22. Whipworms • Broad at one end and narrow at the other. • Use the narrow end to attach to the cecum and lower digestive tract. • Adults produce “shell” protected eggs that may live for years in the soil. • Produce watery feces and may result in dehydration and death.

  23. Tapeworms • Flat and segmented worms that live in the small intestine. • Shed terminal segments in feces.

  24. Tapeworms • Usually the largest worms affecting dogs reaching 1 foot or more in length • Most depend on a host such as a flea or wild rabbit to develop. • Not harmful for dogs, but may cause serious injury to humans.

  25. Heartworms • Thin worms that live in the major artery carrying blood from the heart to the lungs. • Serious threat to dogs causing major injury to vital organs. • Transmitted by mosquitoes. • Prevention is preferred to treatment which is only effective in early infestation.

  26. Heartworms • Symptoms • Frequent coughing • Labored breathing • Fainting in severe cases

  27. Infectious Diseases of Cats

  28. Feline Panleukopenia • Cat distemper caused by parvovirus or DNA virus. • Affects cats younger than 16 weeks and has a 75% death rate. • Spread by direct contact, infected food and water dishes, bedding, and litter boxes.

  29. Feline Panleukopenia • Symptoms: • Depression • Loss of appetite • High fever • Lethargy • Vomiting • Diarrhea • Dehydration

  30. Feline herpesvirus (FHV) • Respiratory infection caused by a DNA virus. • Shed in discharges from nose, eyes and throat and transmitted by direct contact. • Cats can become carriers, but vaccines are available.

  31. Feline Herpesvirus (FHV) • Symptoms: • Depression • Sneezing and coughing • Severe eye and nasal discharges • Increase in temperature • Mouth ulcers

  32. Feline Enteric Coronavirus • Caused by ingestion of contaminated feces in kittens between 4 and 12 weeks of age. • Spread by ingestion of contaminated feces. • Symptoms: • Low grade fever • Vomiting • Soft or watery diarrhea • Blood in the feces • Dehydration

  33. Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP) • Disease caused by coronavirus that leads to organ failure. • Coronavirus infections are more common, but few show signs. • Symptoms • Fever • Refusal to eat • Depression • Weight loss

  34. Noninfectious Diseases of Cats

  35. Feline Urologic Syndrome (FUS) • A.K.A. Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease • May range from mild inflammation to blockage of the urethra, uremic poisoning, and death.

  36. Causes of FUS • Improper diet (where cats are fed high levels of magnesium and phosphorus) • Low water intake that causes concentrations of various salts in the urine • Possibly a virus

  37. Wet Eye • Excessive tear production or blockage of drainage canals that drain tears to the nasal cavity causing tears to overflow at the corner of the eyes.

  38. Internal Parasites of Cats

  39. Toxoplasmosis • Disease caused by infection with single-celled protozoan parasite Toxoplasm gondii. • Contracted from eating raw meat or contaminated feces. • Fever, jaundice, and difficulty moving may result. • No vaccination and humans can become infected through cat litter boxes.

  40. Ascarids (Toxocara cati) • Ascarids from ingesting eggs passed in the feces of an infected animal or in the case of kittens from the milk of an infected mother cat. • Severe cases may cause pot-bellied appearance (distended abdomen) and an unthrifty cat.

  41. Hookworm (Ancylostoma tubaeforme) • Infection occurs when larvae is ingested from contaminated food or water, or when larvae penetrates the skin. • May cause dark-colored feces and anemia from the loss of blood.

  42. Tapeworm (Dipylidium caninum) • Require a cost other than the cat for development. • Dipylidium caninum must be hosted by fleas and Tania taeniaeformis may be hosted by rats and mice. • Neither type causes major harm.

  43. External Parasites of Small Animals

  44. Fleas • Brown, blood-sucking insects of small size that move rapidly over the skin. • May develop from eggs to adult in as little as 16 days. • May first be detected in the groin and rump area of the animal.

  45. Fleas • Cause irritation and extreme itching • May be controlled with powders, dips, shampoos, collars, oral insecticides, foggers and sprays.

  46. Ticks • Blood-sucking arthropods of the skin. • Two main families of ticks: hard and soft • Two types of hard ticks are a concern for dogs: brown dogs tick (can survive indoors) and American dog tick (lives on grass and shrubs)

  47. Ticks • Main soft tick is the Spirose Ear Tick. • Larvae and nymph stage live in and cause irritation to the outer ear canal.

  48. Lice • Wingless insects that may bite or suck blood from the host. • Not common on dogs. • If infestation occurs, the dog will experience hair loss from scratching and rubbing. • Two treatments 12 days apart with dips, dusts, or spray can control.

  49. Mites • Tiny, eight-legged arachnids. • Five species cause the most problems • Demodectic mites • Two types of sarcoptic mites • Ear mites • Cheyletiella mites

  50. Demodectic Mites • No not usually cause problems. • A severe infestation may result in hair loss, reddening of the skin, and encrusting in spots or over the entire body of the dog.