Essential Standard 5.00 Discuss the role of major systems of small animals.
Objective 5.02 • Discuss the ways that disease processes affect major body systems.
Infectious Diseases of Dogs • Group of diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms • Canine distemper • Canine parvovirus infection • Kennel cough • Rabies • Canine brucellosis • Salmonellosis
Canine Distemper • Caused by the inhalation of the airborne virus. • Symptoms: • Early-vomiting and diarrhea • Later-tremor and epileptic fits
Canine Parvovirus Infection • Caused by viral contact of materials contaminated with feces from infected dogs • Affects mostly young pups • Symptoms: • Vomiting • Bloody diarrhea • Refusal to eat
Kennel Cough (Tracheobronchitis) • Respiratory disease contracted in confinement (pet shops, dog shows, kennels, etc.) • Symptom: • Cough
Rabies • Viral disease that attacks the central nervous system. • All warm blooded animals can transmit rabies.
Rabies Symptoms • Occur 2 weeks to 3 months after bite. Severe can be within 10 days. • Furious rabies-animal may act strange then wander off, attack and bite anything in its path, often frothing at the mouth • Dumb rabies-no wandering, but paralysis of lower jaw followed by body paralysis and death
Canine Brucellosis • Bacterial disease spread through breeding • Females • Abortion • Failure to whelp • Enlargement of lymph nodes • Males • Swelling of scrotum and testicles
Salmonellosis • Bacterial disease spread by ingestion of food contaminated by feces.
Heart Disease • 2 types • Congenital (birth) • Contracted • Symptoms • Coughing at night during sleep • Coughing during exercise • Inability to exercise • Open mouth breathing at rest
Cataracts • Cause cloudy, white opacity of the lens. • Can be hereditary or not • Can cause blindness • More often affects older dogs
Arthritis • Degenerative joint disease that causes pain, lameness, and stiffness in the joints. • Large, old and obese dogs are more prone to the disease.
Ringworm • Most common fungal disease. • Symptoms: • Broken hairs around the face, ears or feet. • Reddened skin and scaly skin develop. • Crusting and scaling in severe cases.
Blastomycosis • Inhaling infected spores of soil enriched with bird or bat droppings. • Symptoms: • Coughing • Rapid breathing • Pneumonia • Fever
Ascarids or Roundworms • May grow to 8 inches in length when mature • Affect mainly puppies and deprive them of nutrients • Transmitted by female dogs to puppies • Severe infestation causes pot-bellied appearance • Danger to children
Hookworms • Blood-sucking parasites that attach to the small intestine, causing small spots of bleeding • Adult worms attach to the small intestine where they digest a plug of tissue. • Heavy infestations cause the animal to appear weak, listless, and anemic • Affects older dogs and puppies
Whipworms • Broad at one end and narrow at the other. • Use the narrow end to attach to the cecum and lower digestive tract. • Adults produce “shell” protected eggs that may live for years in the soil. • Produce watery feces and may result in dehydration and death.
Tapeworms • Flat and segmented worms that live in the small intestine. • Shed terminal segments in feces.
Tapeworms • Usually the largest worms affecting dogs reaching 1 foot or more in length • Most depend on a host such as a flea or wild rabbit to develop. • Not harmful for dogs, but may cause serious injury to humans.
Heartworms • Thin worms that live in the major artery carrying blood from the heart to the lungs. • Serious threat to dogs causing major injury to vital organs. • Transmitted by mosquitoes. • Prevention is preferred to treatment which is only effective in early infestation.
Heartworms • Symptoms • Frequent coughing • Labored breathing • Fainting in severe cases
Feline Panleukopenia • Cat distemper caused by parvovirus or DNA virus. • Affects cats younger than 16 weeks and has a 75% death rate. • Spread by direct contact, infected food and water dishes, bedding, and litter boxes.
Feline Panleukopenia • Symptoms: • Depression • Loss of appetite • High fever • Lethargy • Vomiting • Diarrhea • Dehydration
Feline herpesvirus (FHV) • Respiratory infection caused by a DNA virus. • Shed in discharges from nose, eyes and throat and transmitted by direct contact. • Cats can become carriers, but vaccines are available.
Feline Herpesvirus (FHV) • Symptoms: • Depression • Sneezing and coughing • Severe eye and nasal discharges • Increase in temperature • Mouth ulcers
Feline Enteric Coronavirus • Caused by ingestion of contaminated feces in kittens between 4 and 12 weeks of age. • Spread by ingestion of contaminated feces. • Symptoms: • Low grade fever • Vomiting • Soft or watery diarrhea • Blood in the feces • Dehydration
Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP) • Disease caused by coronavirus that leads to organ failure. • Coronavirus infections are more common, but few show signs. • Symptoms • Fever • Refusal to eat • Depression • Weight loss
Feline Urologic Syndrome (FUS) • A.K.A. Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease • May range from mild inflammation to blockage of the urethra, uremic poisoning, and death.
Causes of FUS • Improper diet (where cats are fed high levels of magnesium and phosphorus) • Low water intake that causes concentrations of various salts in the urine • Possibly a virus
Wet Eye • Excessive tear production or blockage of drainage canals that drain tears to the nasal cavity causing tears to overflow at the corner of the eyes.
Toxoplasmosis • Disease caused by infection with single-celled protozoan parasite Toxoplasm gondii. • Contracted from eating raw meat or contaminated feces. • Fever, jaundice, and difficulty moving may result. • No vaccination and humans can become infected through cat litter boxes.
Ascarids (Toxocara cati) • Ascarids from ingesting eggs passed in the feces of an infected animal or in the case of kittens from the milk of an infected mother cat. • Severe cases may cause pot-bellied appearance (distended abdomen) and an unthrifty cat.
Hookworm (Ancylostoma tubaeforme) • Infection occurs when larvae is ingested from contaminated food or water, or when larvae penetrates the skin. • May cause dark-colored feces and anemia from the loss of blood.
Tapeworm (Dipylidium caninum) • Require a cost other than the cat for development. • Dipylidium caninum must be hosted by fleas and Tania taeniaeformis may be hosted by rats and mice. • Neither type causes major harm.
Fleas • Brown, blood-sucking insects of small size that move rapidly over the skin. • May develop from eggs to adult in as little as 16 days. • May first be detected in the groin and rump area of the animal.
Fleas • Cause irritation and extreme itching • May be controlled with powders, dips, shampoos, collars, oral insecticides, foggers and sprays.
Ticks • Blood-sucking arthropods of the skin. • Two main families of ticks: hard and soft • Two types of hard ticks are a concern for dogs: brown dogs tick (can survive indoors) and American dog tick (lives on grass and shrubs)
Ticks • Main soft tick is the Spirose Ear Tick. • Larvae and nymph stage live in and cause irritation to the outer ear canal.
Lice • Wingless insects that may bite or suck blood from the host. • Not common on dogs. • If infestation occurs, the dog will experience hair loss from scratching and rubbing. • Two treatments 12 days apart with dips, dusts, or spray can control.
Mites • Tiny, eight-legged arachnids. • Five species cause the most problems • Demodectic mites • Two types of sarcoptic mites • Ear mites • Cheyletiella mites
Demodectic Mites • No not usually cause problems. • A severe infestation may result in hair loss, reddening of the skin, and encrusting in spots or over the entire body of the dog.