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Chapter 1

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Chapter 1

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  1. Chapter 1 New World Encounters

  2. Native American Histories before Conquest Humans occupied part of the Western Hemisphere thousands of years before the European discovery of America. Environmental conditions spurred ancient settlement as glaciers moved south and uncovered a ______ __________ connecting Asia and N. America, across which came the Paleo-Indians Food, climate, culture and especially global warming ended the Ice Age, allowing Native American cultures to expand their populations and where they lived. As food sources changed due to the ____________ Revolution, so did their cultures, and soon they developed semi-agricultural societies of considerable sophistication Three of those societies included:

  3. A World Transformed Good: Iron tools Some adopted Christianity N.A. were profoundly changed by contact with Europeans. Some good, mostly bad • BAD: • Seen as the main obstacles to settlement • European trade goods quickly became a part of N.A. culture, and their efforts to gather furs for trade upset the ecological balance • This also caused increasing tension between tribes as competition increased. • N.A. not killed in battle died as a result of disease brought by Europeans to the Americas

  4. Imagining a New World

  5. An Unpromising Beginning:Mystery at Roanoke ROANOKE Sir Walter Raleigh tried and FAILED

  6. Multiple Choice 1 • 1. The peopling of America was made possible some 30,000 years ago because of • A. a long period of global warming • B. the domestication of horses • C. new canoe technology • D. bitter intertribal wars in Asia • E. the onset of the Ice Age • Answer: E

  7. Multiple Choice 2 • 2. The first migrants to the New World came from • A. Western Europe • B. Asia • C. Africa • D. Australia • E. Southwest • Answer: B

  8. Multiple Choice # 3 • 3. Columbus originally was determined to prove that • A. A westward water route to China existed • B. the world was not flat • C. the continents of North and South America existed • D. The lost continent of Atlantis was actually part of South America • E. the world was smaller than scientists believed at the time • Answer: A

  9. Multiple Choice # 4 • 4. Geographically, the French claimed and settled • A. the southwest • B. the Atlantic seaboard • C. the Mississippi Valley and Canada • D. Brazil • E. the Southeast • Answer: C

  10. Multiple Choice # 5 • 5. What 16th c. European upheaval had a profound impact upon England’s settlement of the New World? • A. the Crusades • B. the War of the Roses • C. the Hundred Years’ War • D. the experience of the Marian exiles • E. the Reformation • Answer: E

  11. FRQ • Describe the effect of European exploration and colonization on African and Native American cultures. How did each group react to these confrontations of societies? • Although the reasons varied by nation, all European nations’ desires for exploration revolved around three central themes. Those themes were the quest for gold and spices, the desire to spread Christianity, and a desire to utilize new technologies. This then had a huge impact on all three continents. Each continent had negative and positive consequences. • Positive consequences included trading of crops between continents thus stabilizing the diets and nutrition of each continent. Another positive consequence was the exchange of and growth of cultures through diffusion. Negative consequences were African slavery, annihilation of Native American populations and cultures and the damage of two continents’ ecosystems.

  12. New World Experiments:England’s 17th c. colonies CHESAPEAKE: DREAMS OF WEALTH Maryland Virginia Joint Stock company (namely the London Co) built Jamestown. Experience trouble because of a hostile environment Sir George Calvert and son Cecilius (the Lords of Baltimore) acquired a royal charter to set up Maryland Saved by John Smith who established military order. London Co. also sent more people to populate the colony The second Lord Baltimore insisted on religious toleration Tobacco as a commercial crop was the key to eventual success. House of Burgesses established the first gov’t in the Americas

  13. Reinventing England in America Pilgrims John Winthrop Massachusetts Bay Colony First went to Holland Democratic Town Meetings Religious Dissent Anne Hutchinson/RogerWilliams New Hampshire New Haven Connecticut Rhode Island

  14. Diversity in the Middle Colonies

  15. Planting the Carolinas and The Founding of Georgia Carolinas Georgia Settled by the English Utopian Vision Anthony Ashley Cooper, Earl of Shaftesbury General James Oglethorpe Wealthy families from Barbados Debtors prison from London Struggled in the early years N. Carolina S. Carolina 1729

  16. Multiple Choice #1 • 1. Unlike Virginia, Maryland was established • A. as a commercial center • B. as a frontier outpost to secure the area from the French • C. by French Huguenots • D. as a religious sanctuary for persecuted Catholics from England • E. by a commercial trading company • Answer: D

  17. Multiple Choice #2 • 2. The major difference in the founding of the colony of Georgia was • A. it was a royal colony in which the king paid the governor’s salary • B. religious differences between England and its colonists • C. an act of aggression and defense from the Spanish • D. the colony was not heavily populated by natives • E. All of the above were differences between all of the rest of the colonies and Georgia • Answer: C Georgia became a royal colony after it’s founding. Choice A is not correct because the question asks about the time the colony was founded. When Georgia was founded, it was feared that the Spanish would attach S. Carolina. Carolinians took hold of Spanish land to build that buffer.

  18. Multiple Choice #3 • 3. The main staple of the Carolinas’ economy by the close of the 17th c. was • A. cotton • B. rice • C. tobacco • D. timber • E. indigo • Answer: B The geography of S. Carolina was conducive for rice production. However, it did not become a staple until after 1690

  19. Multiple Choice #4 • 4. The Plymouth Colony was ultimately absorbed by which colony? • A. Maryland • B. Pennsylvania • C. Virginia • D. Massachusetts • E. Deleware • Answer: D

  20. Multiple Choice #5 • 5. Anne Hutchinson’s skillful self-defense at her trial before the Bay’s magistrates was ruined by • A. her affinity for the dictum of works • B. her claim of personal revelation • C. her reliance on the Scriptures • D. her rejection of free grace • E. the fact that she was female • Answer: B The revelation was tantamount to heresy

  21. FRQ Compare and contrast the English colonies of the Chesapeake with their counterparts at Massachusetts Bay. What were their similarities and their differences? Massachusetts Bay colonies were established as refuges. The first colonies were refuges from religious persecution in England. Then ultimately, the other colonies were established as refuges from the Bay colonies. The Chesapeake colonies may have originally been refuges from religious persecution. These colonies established themselves as heterogeneous colonies that led to cultural diversity. This diversity affected the political, cultural and economic development of the colonies

  22. Putting Down Roots:Opportunity and Oppression in Colonial Society SOCIAL ORDER IN THE 17TH C.

  23. The Challenge of the Chesapeake Environment

  24. Race and Freedom in British America Africans 11 million Thought to be barbarous and heathens Whites drew up slave codes African response-developed their own unique African American culture Creole

  25. Rise of a commercial empire Mercantilism Regulatory policy-increase exports, decrease imports, and grow richer at the expense of other European states Navigation Acts (beginning in 1660) Board of Trade Oversee colonial affairs Limit competition Shipping guidelines and a list of enumerated goods that could flow from the colonies to England

  26. Colonial Factions spark political revolt, 1675-1691 Bacon’s Rebellion (1676) Salem Witch Trials (1692) King Philip’s War (1675) The Glorious Revolution Jacob Leisler John Coode

  27. Multiple Choice #1 • 1. In _________, charges of witchcraft caused considerable turmoil in the late 17th c. • A. Salem • B. London • C. Dedham • D. Boston • E. New York • Answer: A

  28. Multiple Choice #2 • 2. Puritans viewed which of the following as essential to their New England commonwealth? • A. strict adherence to personal hygiene measures • B. a flexible form of colonial administration • C. a healthy family life • D. the rapid creation of an urban society in New England • E. honest public officials • Answer: C

  29. Multiple Choice #3 • 3. In 1647, the Massachusetts legislature ordered all townships with 15 or more families to ______ and support with local taxes • A. provide police services • B. establish fire departments • C. hire a doctor • D. elect a mayor • E. open an elementary school • Answer: E

  30. Multiple Choice #4 • 4. The most important difference between the New England and Chesapeake colonies was • A. found in their different forms of agricultural production • B. the Chesapeake’s much higher mortality rate • C. based on the differences between their respective proprietors • D. the Chesapeake’s much greater emphasis on the family • E. their different religions • Answer: B All of the answers are plausibly correct. However, the key phrase in this question is “most important difference” The mortality rate retarded the growth of the Chesapeake Bay region.

  31. Multiple Choice # 5 • 5. British authorities based their colonial commercial policies on the theory of • A. feudalism • B. monopolism • C. federalism • D. mercantilism • E. republicanism • Answer: D

  32. FRQ Compare and contrast social and economic life in 17th c New England with that of the Chesapeake colonies New England social and economic life centered around the concept of church first. Once the religious obligation goes away, the individual is safe. The resources in this region really affect this idea. These colonies also have difficulties because of the homogeneous nature. When someone objects the person becomes ostracized. The heterogeneous nature of the Chesapeake colonies allow for worship as one sees fit. This then enhances a viable economy.

  33. Experience of Empire18th century America

  34. Spanish borderlands of the 18th c What happened?! • Spanish outposts in North America grew very slowly • Spanish colonials exploited and enslaved Native Americans • Settlements lacked the resources for sustained growth

  35. Impact of European ideas on American culture

  36. Religious Revivals in Provincial Societies • The Great Awakening had a profound impact in colonial America and cause colonists to rethink their basic assumptions about church and state institutions • It brought a profound infusion of evangelical exhortations and revival spirit • Preachers like ________ and __________ vividly depicted the horrors of hell to captivated audiences in an effort to restore religious vitality. • The movement swept the colonies through the work of _________ preachers

  37. Clash of political cultures

  38. Century of Imperial War King George’s War King William’s and Queen Anne’s Wars Revealed the capability of America colonial forces in waging war against the French Resulted in little change in territorial control The Seven Years’ War Ben Franklin-Albany Plan Showdown for N.American supremacy 1756-1760. English prevailed Proposed a most ambitious plan for common colonial defense and western expansion

  39. Multiple choice #1 • 1. The largest group of white, non-English immigrants to the colonies were • A. the Dutch • B. the Germans • C. the Swedish • D. the Scotch-Irish • E. the French • Answer: D

  40. Multiple Choice #2 • 2. _________ was the most important embodiment of the Enlightenment in America. • A. Jonathan Edwards • B. Ben Franklin • C. John Locke • D. Isaac Newton • E. Thomas Jefferson • Answer: B

  41. Multiple Choice #3 • 3. Which of the following wars between England and France had the greatest political and economic impact on colonial America? • A. King William’s War • B. Queen Anne’s War • C. King George’s War • D. the Seven Years’ War • E. the War of the League of Augsburg • Answer: D

  42. Multiple Choice #4 • 4. What did the Great Awakening, intercolonial trade, and the rise of the colonial assemblies have in common? • A. they created disdain for England • B. they created a rebellious spirit in America • C. they exacerbated the problems of an already divided citizenry • D. they helped create imperial rivalry between England and France • E. they all contributed to a growing sense of shared identity among the colonists • Answer: E

  43. Multiple Choice #5 • 5. ________ was responsible for authoring the Albany Plan • A. Ben Franklin • B. Jonathan Edwards • C. John Locke • D. Isaac Newton • E. Thomas Jefferson • Answer: A

  44. FRQ Discuss the ways that the Anglo-American economic relationship changed during the 18th century. Further, discuss what impact those changes had upon the colonial economy

  45. The American Revolution: From Elite Protestto popular revolt, 1763-1783 Supreme Authority: King George III, and Parliament “No Taxation without Representation” became the American motto while seeking freedom from England’s revenue taxation American ideology: heavy religious and moral components based on the Great Awakening and John Locke

  46. Eroding the Bonds of Empire

  47. Steps toward Independence Coercive Acts Continental Congress-55 American delegates A Second Continental Congress (1775) Thomas Paine “Common Sense” Shots heard “round the world” Lexington Concord

  48. Fighting for Independence American English 1776-George Washington’s army suffered serious defeats in NY and NJ 1778-dug in at Valley Forge American colonists dug in again and won a final victory in Yorktown American peace delegation (B. Franklin, J Adams, J. Jay) would negotiate a very successful treaty gaining independence, favorable boundaries and important fishing rights 1777-Burgoyne’s army fell in Saratoga, persuading the French to offer an alliance with America British Southern strategy let loose a fury Loyalists-those colonists still loyal to the crown would bring social disorder

  49. Multiple Choice #1 • 1. England passed the Coercive Acts in response to • A. the colonial boycott of the Stamp Act • B. the American victory at Saratoga • C. the Boston Tea Party • D. the Declaratory Act • E. the Tea act • Answer: C

  50. Multiple Choice #2 • 2. The tensions leading to the Boston Massacre were caused by • A. widespread British murders of American leaders • B. Parliament’s repeal of the Stamp Act • C. the Boston Tea party • D. the presence of several thousand British soldiers in Boston • E. anger at Charles Townshend • Answer: D