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Planetary Nebulae: Observations of the Early Phases

Planetary Nebulae: Observations of the Early Phases

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Planetary Nebulae: Observations of the Early Phases

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  1. Planetary Nebulae: Observations of the Early Phases Margaret Meixner STScI

  2. Motivations for CO J=1-0 • Best tracer of molecular gas mass • AGB mass loss is predominantly molecular • Kinematics in proto-planetary nebulae (0.5 km/s) • Toughest molecule w.r.t. photodissociation => probes outer regions CO

  3. Observations • Sample of 13 evolved stars: AGB, PPN, PN • Millimeter interferometry with the BIMA array • Combined with single dish maps from the NRAO 12 m • Full synthesis maps provide • Spectral resolution 1 km/s, coverage 128 km/s • 0.5" to 200" scale sizes

  4. Vexp V0 Vexp Vexp Vexp V0-Vexp V0 Jy V0+Vexp V0+Vexp V0-Vexp V0

  5. IRC+10216: BIMA & NRAO 12 m CO J=1-0 (Fong, Meixner & Shah 2003)

  6. IRC+10216 Fong, Meixner et al. 2006

  7. Egg Nebula / AFGL 2688 Fong, Meixner et al. 2006

  8. Egg Nebula / AFGL 2688 Fong, Meixner et al. 2006

  9. Egg Nebula / AFGL 2688 Fong, Meixner et al. 2006

  10. NGC 7027 Fong, Meixner et al. 2006

  11. NGC 7027 Fong, Meixner et al. 2006

  12. NGC 7027 Fong, Meixner et al. 2006

  13. BIMA CO Survey: Fong, Meixner, Sutton, Zalucha and Welch 2006

  14. BIMA survey: Radiative evolution with time Fong, Meixner et al. 2006

  15. Meixner 2001

  16. NGC 7027 BIMA: Fong et al. 2001 WIYN/NIRIM H , [FeII], Brg 2 Meixner 2001

  17. (Fong, Meixner et al. 2001)

  18. (Fong,Meixner et al. 2001)

  19. (Fong,Meixner et al. 2001)

  20. Object C-rich: AFGL 618 0.01 0.006 0.006 IRAS 21282 0.1 0.04 0.04 NGC 7027 0.2 0.12 0.15 NGC 6720 0.06 0.1 0.4 O-rich: M 2-9 0.04 0.80 0.90 Hb 12 0.3 0.95 1.0 NGC 6302 1.3 0.81 0.94 (Meixner et al. 2002)

  21. Spherical AGB Shell: IRC+10216 Axisymmetric PN: NGC 7027 B + V Deep Exposure FoV ~ 15000 AU (Mauron & Huggins 1999) HST Two-Color Composite FoV ~ 40000 AU (Bond et al. 1996)

  22. Dust Shell B-G type Post-AGB Rmin Rmax Probing the Mass Loss History Back in time (Ueta 2002)

  23. B-G type Post-AGB Rmin Rmax Probing the Mass Loss History • PPN shells preserve • AGB mass loss history • dust grain properties (Ueta 2002)

  24. Observing PPN Dust Shells B-G type Post-AGB (Ueta 2002)

  25. Absorption Observing PPN Dust Shells Scattering (Ueta 2002)

  26. Observing PPN Dust Shells Optical Reflection Nebulosity! Scattering Thermal Emission Region! Re-emission (Ueta 2002)

  27. Mid-IR PPN Dual Morphology Toroidal PPNs • Large Emission Core • Two Emission Peaks as Dust Torus Core/elliptical PPNs • Small Emission Core • Large Emission Halo Meixner et al. 1999

  28. Optical PPN Dual Morphology Star Obvious Low-level Elongated PPNs D Ust Prominent Longitudinally E Xtended PPNs Ueta, Meixner, Bobrowsky 2000

  29. Morphological Dichotomy Toroidal SOLE Optically Thin Shell Core/elliptical DUPLEX Optically Thick Shell Ueta, Meixner, Bobrowsky 2000

  30. Optical Depth & Morphology Toroidal-SOLE PPNs Core/elliptical-DUPLEX PPNs Ueta, Meixner, Bobrowsky 2000

  31. SOLE: IRAS 17436 DUPLEX: IRAS17150 Numerical Models: Examples both O-rich & nearly edge-on Meixner et al. (2002)

  32. Model SEDs SOLE: IRAS 17436 DUPLEX: IRAS 17150 Meixner et al. (2002)

  33. Model Images SOLE: IRAS 17436 DUPLEX: IRAS 17150 Meixner et al. (2002)

  34. Model Parameters ˙ ˙ Meixner et al. (2002)

  35. Dust Properties: Meixner et al. (2002)

  36. Three kinematic signatures • Simple expansion, SOLE PPN: IRC+10216, IRAS 22272+5435, HD179821, HD 161796, HD 56126, IRAS 21282+5050, OH 26.5+4.2 • Expansion + collimated outflows, DUPLEX PPN: AFGL 2688, NGC 7027, AFGL 618 • Expansion + rotation, New class, Disk PPN: Mira, 89 Her, Red Rectangle Fong, Meixner et al. 2006

  37. Expansion, SOLE PPN: HD 161796 Fong, Meixner et al. 2006

  38. Expansion, SOLE PPN: HD 161796 Fong, Meixner et al. 2006

  39. Collimated outflows, DUPLEX PPN: Egg Nebula / AFGL 2688 Thompson et al. 1997 Fong, Meixner et al. 2006

  40. Collimated outflows, Young PN: NGC 7027 Fong, Meixner et al. 2006

  41. Red Rectangle, Rotating Disk source: Bujarrabal et al. 2005

  42. Red Rectangle, Disk source: Bujarrabal et al. 2005 Model comparisons: -Keplerian rotation -central mass of 0.9 solar masses

  43. BIMA CO Survey: Fong, Meixner, Sutton, Zalucha and Welch 2006

  44. Summary • The hardening of the radiation field (not shocks) dominates the transformation of the molecular gas envelope, formed on the AGB, into the ionized gas. • The morphological transformation occurred at the tip of the AGB with further shaping from (collimated) outflows in the proto-planetary nebula phase. • Three types of proto-planetary nebulae, in order of lowest to highest mass circumstellar shell: rotating disk, simple expansion, collimated outflows

  45. Extra slides

  46. Post-Asymptotic Giant Branch Object: HD 56126 Meixner et al. (2004)

  47. HD 56126 Radiative Transfer Gas Model: 0.06 M Meixner et al. (2004)

  48. Post-Asymptotic Giant Branch Object: HD 56126 Radiative Transfer Dust Model (2-Dust, Ueta & Meixner 2003): 7.810-4 M Mgas/Mdust = 75 Meixner et al. (2004)