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Establishment of a Multipurpose Gamma Irradiation Facility (MGIF) in Sri Lanka

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Establishment of a Multipurpose Gamma Irradiation Facility (MGIF) in Sri Lanka

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  1. Establishment of a Multipurpose Gamma Irradiation Facility (MGIF) in Sri Lanka by Samantha Kulatunge Head Radiation Processing Section Atomic Energy Authority No. 60/460, Baseline Road Orugodawatte, Wellampitiya

  2. Content: • What is radiation and related units? • What is Gamma irradiator? • What are the applications of Gamma radiation and why do we use radiation? • Multipurpose Gamma Irradiation Facility in Sri Lanka • Selection of land • Throughput (Capacity) of the facility • Potential revenue • Estimated Irradiation Market • Profit & Loss Analysis

  3. What is radiation?

  4. Electromagnetic radiation

  5. Measurements: Dose:The quantity of energy that the irradiated product absorbs. 1GRAY (Gy) = 1J/kg Activity:Number of curies. Also improperly called source strength. 1 Curie (Ci) = Activity of 1g of 226Ra 1g of 226Ra disintegrate 3.7x1010 atoms per second  1 Ci = 3.7 x 1010 dis/s

  6. GAMMA RADIATION Beta Particle Gamma Rays (photons) Emitted when radioisotope cobalt-60 decays Made from cobalt-59Half life : 5.24 yearsBecomes nickel

  7. How Co-60 produces gamma radiation

  8. How it can be used in processing of products? g :- Surgical gloves (gamma rays) Co-60 radioactive source Kills microorganisms Sterilized rubber glove

  9. L OVER PROCESSING J PROCESSING WINDOW L UNDER PROCESSING When a product expose to radiation; Delivered energy = dose (in Grays = Joules per kilogram) Maximum dose : threshold of undesirable effect Minimum dose : threshold to achieve effect

  10. Multipurpose Gamma Irradiation Facility (MGIF)

  11. Multipurpose Gamma Irradiation Facility Bunker Conveyor unloading Conveyor loading Source rack in pool

  12. Gamma Irradiator Principle Bunker Conveyor Source rack in pool

  13. Slug & Pencil of cobolt-60 (Buiding blocks of a radiation source rack)

  14. Cobolt 60 slug • Cobolt 60 source element (an inner capsule containing slug of cobolt-60) • Source pencil (contain 2 source elements) • Source module (contains up to 48source pencils) • Source rack (contains modules in different configurations, depending on irradiator design)

  15. Radiation stopped by walls Ozone formed by irradiation of oxygen in air Air continuously ejected through chimney Ozone concentration < 1 ppm in limit of site No radioactivity in the air Pool water is safe to drink Radiation stopped by water and ground GAMMA IRRADIATOR Pose no environmental problem Sources returned to supplier after 20 years of usage. No longer radioactive after 180 years

  16. Control panel of the irradiator

  17. Application of MGIF:

  18. Why Radiation Sterilization ? • No recontamination • Non-toxic • No chemical residues • Reliable & safe • Treated product can be used immediately • Complete product penetration • Gamma irradiation produces no heat( therefore preserves properties & characteristics) • Precise and reproducible treatment process • Proven use for 30 years • Environmental friendly

  19. Radiation Sterilization of Medical Products

  20. Human Tissue Sterilization:

  21. PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS EXAMPLES Medicinal herbs and food supplements Antibiotics in dried form Eye ointments and veterinary products with antibiotics

  22. COSMETIC PRODUCTS EXAMPLES Plants, Seaweeds Talcum powder Clay and sea mud Mineral and organic dyes Shampoo and shower gel Brushes

  23. Contd..

  24. Food Irradiation Application: • Delay in ripening • Disinfestation / Insect control • Microbial control • Quarantine treatment • Shelf life extension • Sprout inhibition • Sterilization

  25. Why food Irradiation ? • No chemical residues • Preservation can be done after packaging • Environmental friendly process • Proven for more than 30 years

  26. Insect Control

  27. Shelf-life extension

  28. Sprout Inhibition

  29. Sanitation of rawhide pet toys Quarantine treatment of wooden pallets, souvenirs and handicrafts Sanitation of stuffed toys Preservation of antiques, artefacts, mummies Coloration of glass Other Applications Etc.

  30. Multipurpose Gamma Irradiation Facility in Sri Lanka

  31. MGIF in Sri Lanka • Required land area :02 acres • Total area of the building :3250 M2 • Activity :3 million ci • Initial activity :150 kCi • Power requirement : 45 kw (200kw) • Water : comparable to a large house

  32. Capital cost

  33. Operating Costs (per year) * Can vary depending on the demand for irradiation services

  34. Total Cost for the facility:

  35. Selection of a location

  36. Criteria for selection of a location: • Absence of opposition to the project • Relative proximity to main users • Good accessibility to main roads and port • Privileges that can be obtained • Price of land and management fee • Security of the location • Absence of vulnerability to natural hazards such as floods and landslides • Soil characteristics

  37. Area to be acquired to provide vehicular access for non BOI products Proposed site for Irradiator

  38. RETAINING WALL Site Levelling


  40. Throughput or Capacity of the facility

  41. Throughput of the facility • Potential throughput is proportional to the source activity • Actual throughput depend on • Proportion of the time that facility is used for • Downtime for maintenance • Lack of products at certain periods Throughput of a Gamma Irradiator with 150 kCi will be 100,000 kGy of products • With a density of 0.2 tons/m3 • If facility operates for 7880 hrs per annum (or utilization ratio is 90%)

  42. The quantity of products that can be irradiated with the initial capacity of 150,000 Ci

  43. Potential revenue

  44. Potential revenue for different products with an activity of 150,000 curies

  45. Estimated Irradiation Market

  46. Estimated Irradiation Market