Common Core State Standards Session 5 3-5 English Language Arts
Day 2 – AM Session11:00-12:15 OUTCOMES Participants will increase their knowledge of: • how the CCSS integrate reading, writing, listening and speaking by experiencing text using all four modes of language; • the most powerful strategies for literacy and how to integrate those strategies into any complex text; • the intricacies of reading and extracting meaning from complex text.
Integrated Model for English Language ArtsCommon Core State Standards Reading Speaking & Listening Language Language Writing
Reflective Journal Please take a moment to think about: How do we teach students to think as they read? After writing your response, share with the person sitting on your left.
George Washington George Washington … the man who refused to be King of America
Text Directions • Please listen as I read aloud the first paragraph of George Washington’s letter to you. • After I read, you will be asked to write a brief response with some guidance.
Written Response Take a moment and write down what you are thinking about what I just read aloud to you. You may: (1) paraphrase it in your own words, or (2) write a question you have about this paragraph, or, (3) write about something you want to know more about.
Responding to Writing • Turn to the person behind you. • Read aloud your responses to each other. • Now, select ONE response to strengthen. • Use some text details to support the response. Remember to use quotation marks to set off any direct quotes from the text you may chose to use.
Groups of 4 • You and your partner work with another group to form a group of 4. • Together, examine both the first responses and the strengthened responses and discuss: • What is the evidence of improvement? • How did that happen? • How does this relate to classroom instruction?
Practice Please read the second paragraph of the letter silently.
Practicing • Write down in your own words (paraphrase) the second paragraph, or • Write a question you have about this paragraph, or • Write down something you want to know more about having read this paragraph.
Read your response to your NEW partner – the person sitting in front of you. Select a response to strengthen.
Strengthening A Response • Reading aloud (hear your own words). • Use text details to support the strengthened response. • Remember to use quotation marks to set off direct quotes taken from the text.
Teaching Students to Think As They Read • Read/Think/Write/Read Aloud & Share/Strengthen. • Teacher Think Alouds – what are the students doing? Smiling and nodding; we are asking students to write down what they are thinking. • How do you teach someone to think as they read? • Writing your thoughts down as you go forces you to think and understand as you read. • It is important to cognitively challenge students through cognitive group work; we are teaching habits of the mind!
Review of the Steps – Teaching Students to Think As They Read Teacher posts and reads aloud brief complex passage/paragraph(s). Students write down a paraphrase, summary, question they have, what they are wondering about, or what they want to know more about. Students share that written response with a partner. The partners then select one response to strengthen. Teacher directs students to use text evidence, direct quotes and quotation marks to help strengthen the response. Teacher asks students to articulate how their responses are improved.
Background Information Following Lord Cornwallis’s surrender at Yorktown, Virginia, in October 1781, General George Washington and the bulk of the Continental army returned north to face the remaining British forces in and around New York City. For the remainder of the Revolutionary War, Washington’s main task was to hold his army together while the tortuous peace negotiations at Paris moved slowly toward completion. This was, unfortunately, much more difficult than it sounds. As the British military threat receded, the former colonies became increasingly reluctant to provide the Continental Congress with the means to supply and pay the army properly and in a timely fashion. Furthermore, because of the weakness of the central government enshrined in the Articles of Confederation, Congress found it difficult to enforce its will upon the states. Not surprisingly, during the final years of the conflict Washington on several occasions received petitions from his officers complaining of the Continental Congress’s inability to meet the army’s needs.
Cognitively Challenging, Text Based Questions • Why did the letter Colonel Nicola sent to George Washington anger George Washington so? Provide text based details to support your answer. • Forced with the prospect of the military slipping out of his control, based upon the two texts, how did George Washington keep a complaining and suffering army within bounds? Cite text evidence to support your answer.
Deep Understanding of Complex Text How do we deepen students’ understanding of text without just asking questions? • Portioning the text for a close read at first (small doses of brief text). • Teacher reads aloud. • Students reread or read on and paraphrase. • Students share, revise, strengthen. • Pairing text around a common or related topic, theme.
Reading Strategies Comprehension Monitoring: Being aware of how well you understand what you are reading. Paraphrasing: Stating the sentences in your own words. Prediction: Predicting what will come next in the text. Elaboration: Linking information in the sentence to information you already know. Bridging: Linking different parts of a text together. 20
Teaching Students to Think as They Read Use one question a period that will be written rather than verbal. Select the most cognitively challenging question planned that day for instruction. Write the question down (teacher posts, students write). Turn to your neighbor and tell them what the question means—what is it asking? Write this down. Introduce the subsequent reading with “as we read, we will gather evidence across time and the text to answer this question.” As the students read, we ask, “is there anything in this section of the text that supports answering this question?
Deepening Teaching and Learning How do I teach students to think? We have to work collaboratively in cognitively challenging tasks. We have to teach using text that is cognitively challenging enough. Not frustrating – but challenging.
Self Assessment Using the rubrics listed below (from your handouts), assess your writing and your participation in the discussions. Feel free to share your self assessment with your partner. 1) Extended Text Discussion Self Assessment Rubric 2) Rubric: Writing in Response to Reading 3) Rubric for Student Writing DISCUSS: How might these rubrics help students self assess?
Reflective Journal How do we teach students to think as they read? What might you add to your answer from the beginning of this session?