Music By: Kelsey Whybrew and Caroline Mead
Introduction • Have you ever rebelled? • How often do you listen to music? • Do you discriminate based on race? • To what extent did music provoke rebellion in teenagers during the 1960s? • Black Screen-each question is separate title page • After each question short interview.
Problem:Conformity • Conformity is defined as Behavior in accordance with socially accepted conventions or standards. • Major themes in every decade are always a product of the societal tendencies during said decade. In the 1950's suburbanization, anti-communism, and racisim forced people to conform. According to Ellen Leopold an economic adviser at the Greater London Council and writer on American politics suggests that in the 1950's "just one in six Americans lived in the suburbs"(Leopold). The houses in the suburbs had the same floor plans, same roofing, and even the same landscapes, almost all families had a dad that went to work and a stay at home mom. All the similarities between families in the suburbs meant every one in six Americans lived almost identical lives, resulting in a conforming American society. Anti-Communism is another major factor in the conforming 1950's. David J. Snyder who completed his PhD at the University of Southern Illinois in Historical studies suggests that the 1950's was a time of "Communist conformity and red propaganda" (Snyder) and an "era of the blacklist"(Snyder). As a result of the anti-communism stand, if any American family seemed a step out of line they could be deemed communist and blacklisted, which would lead to no job and no income. This potential life led Americans to to do whatever they could to fit in. • According to Dr. David Pilgrim a professor of sociology and the vice president of diversity/equity at Ferris State University and founder of the Jim Crow Museum of Racist Memoribilia. Jim crow laws showed that blacks were very limited and had to follow several unfair rules on a day to day basis, such as "A black male could not offer his hand with a white male because it implied being socially equal…[and] offended whites” (Dr. David Pilgrim). Voice over Pictures of conformity-google Dissolve Music
Extent and Significance: Confomrity • As a result of World War II many soldiers black and white came home without any education, job opportunities, and money. Fortunately the government stepped in to help. As Ellen Leopold a well known author on American History and a former economic adviser at the Greater London Council states "The G.I. Bill guaranteed loans to returning veterans for the purchase of homes"(Leopold). Most of these homes were located in the recently built suburbs. The majority of soldiers coming back from the war, had no way of caring for their families without taking advantage of the G.I. bill. If every American in their hearts wanted to be like every other American and have all the same beliefs then conformity would have no significance. But people wanted to break free. Blacks and whites. • Along with discriminatory rules, black slaves were subject to physical beatings and had to suffer starvation. John Pinney an author and part of the Pinney family whom were Bristol Merchants and Plantation Owners stated that his ancestors of slave masters were lazy when ”feeding [slaves] what they considered to be enough and encouraging them to grow their own provisions" (Pinney) Overall blacks were treated very horribly on a daily basis and considered lower than dirt. Pictures of slavery Jim crow laws picture GI bill picture
Why past solutions failed • There have been many challenges of conformity but not all past solutions were successful for blacks and whites alike. • American citizens have always been proud of their country and their freedoms, and with this pride comes respect towards other American citizens and American culture. This respect for culture has caused Americans to not question but just do, especially in the years before the 1960's. Teenagers especially for many years did what their parents were told and felt they had to much to lose to speak-up to them, there was also not enough teenagers willing to speak up to stop conformity. Teenagers did feel suppressed and Sonia Benson a well renounced American History Author suggests that "American youth needed an escape from the harsh realities"(Benson) of just excepting life as it was, opposed to living the way the wanted • Most of the time when laws are made to promote integration these laws are ignored or not enforced. Due to the past laws being ignored nothing made tremendous improvement until blacks became involved with changing their future."Plessy gave Jim Crow states a legal way to ignore their constitutional obligations to their black citizens" (Dr. David Pilgrim). Although many failed at bringing themselves to enforce laws many had to simply wait for future generations. Eric Foner a Professor of History at Columbia University stated that any change in normal life was often "violently resisted by people who were otherwise law-abiding citizens" (Foner). As stated many Americans just couldn't come to terms with fixing racial discrimination therefore segregation in music persisted until the turning point and establishment of black musicians. Cont. racial discrimination-slavery pictures, black and white facilities Teens all same-conformity pictures
Why conformity Persists • When people step out of the norm they are accepting a challenge. There is always the people who are unable to accommodate themselves to change and the 1960s were a big change. Sonia Benson a well known American History Author states that "parents and other adults feared the influence of [music] over the younger generation"(Benson). While music and young Americans were protesting war, racisim, and domesticity, adults were protesting music. • The problem of segregation continues somewhat today because of generations past not accepting the change. A lot of times however it takes more than one law to change the minds of people, it can take generations. GraziellaBertocchia CEPR Researcher at the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, and ArcangeloDimicoa Lecturer in Economics at Queen’s University of Belfas said that discrimination "Within the US, [involves] slavery exerting a lingering effect on income disparities and that it works through the persistent racial gap in education" (Bertocchi and Dimico). With the racial gap still there, this is proof some people have not moved on. Also "inequality is deeply-rooted in the history of the US" and will continue for many years (Bertocchi and Dimico). Considering the extension of discrimination through the ages, it will take some time for segregation to completely fade out. • In total the conformity of the years before the 1960’s frustrated people to a degree they could no loner handle, and the 1960’s Americans exploded with self-expression and civil rights through music.
Before the Turning Point • Since the beginning of time, humans have evolved, as a result of boundaries being tested and what eventually becomes socially acceptable. Teenagers and balcksare of the most evoloving. • Specifically, the 1950's was a relaxed time for teenagers, they did what they were told, and lived as some would consider normal lives. Franis A.J. Ianni is a well know Author and researcher on the behaviors of adolescents describes "the 1950's [as] a period of relative peace and prosperity, most were portrayed as clean-cut, materialistic conformists, indifferent to political and social issues" (Ianni). Teenagers in the 1950's were calm, and content with their lives. They did not feel the need to stand up for anything, or that they were even capable of protest • Segregation in music was brutal before the blacks established their voice. Many blacks were deprived of their talent and opportunities. "Many white artists 'covered' songs blacks had written years earlier and made it big by copying the preforming styles, dances and dress of black artist" (Chappell). Kevin Chappell is the senior editor and white hour corespondent for the magazine Ebony, and has won many awards for his work. Many blacks were rundown and in desperate need of change or hope that they could have their music be heard. In this time, by simply "putting a white face on the music opened up acceptance of the music" (Chappell). Blacks were discriminated against for simple race and had almost given up when they finally broke through.
Initial impact • In American History there are a couple events when people can remember exactly where they were and what they were doing, when that initial impact occured. Specific to the 1960s the Bealtes rise to fame and the new found confidence and courage of blacks in music. • On February 9th 1964 about 73 million Americans will never forget where they were, because 73 million Americans were watching the Beatles first appearance on American television, and from this day forward American citizens lives would not be the same. According to Veronica Majerol a contributor for the Scholastic News online, "[the Beatles] marked the start of a new kind of teenage music and culture that helped make the 1960s, the '60s" (Majerol). The Beatles controversial style, hair-dos, and lyrics all instantly changed the way American society worked. Teenagers had new role models, and they were no longer clean-cut and conformists. Majerol also recognizes that "[their new music would become the soundtrack of an emerging hippie counterculture. It spoke to a generation of rebellious youths...who were [ready to] speak against the Vietnam War, call for greater civil rights of blacks and women, and increasingly question all forms of authority"(Majerol). The Beatles nudged the American youth to start making decisions for themselves, they made teenagers feel as though they could stand up for what they believed in.. Teenagers were no longer willing to bow down to their parents, they were ready to be themselves no matter what the consequences. • When blacks became fed up with the stealing and patronizing, they opened their own styles. Jazz and Rock and Roll were the bebop's that encouraged blacks to play their own music regardless of popularity."Black musicians were less educated and emphasized playing by ear rather than reading music" (Sellman). James Sellman worked at Harvard University, Earlham College, University of Oslo and has written about many topics including African American culture and music. Blacks moved to their own rhythm and this flabbergasted the whites. Such free lance ways "remained an outlaw music for relatively prosperous and upright" whites (Sellman). The whites were prominently stunned by the independence and courage of the blacks and the blacks just kept playing their own creative ways. African Americns used musis to help them step out of the norm and become themselves, while teenagers used music s a path for rebellion. Nevertheless music was a new way to express youself during the ‘60’s.
Why the change continues • The importance of free speech for the American Culture is incontrovertible which makes it hard to believe there was a time when many Americans did not exercises their right. The Beatles had a lasting impact on American culture not only for their incredible skills as musicians, but also because they taught the teenagers in America how to protest and stand up for what they believed in According to Lindsey Adkins who wrote about Marcia Marinello, a teenager during the 1960s, " [Marnello] remembers participating in the protests. whether is was for civil rights, saving the whales, ending the war or equality for women" (Adkins) those protest became a central part of her life and taught her how to stand up for herself. The entire American youth was learning how to stand up for themselves. The teenagers from the 60s grew up and had children, children who were taught to use their voices and act on the issues that were important to them. And those children taught their children and the cycle continues resulting in a more active America. The combination of the Beatles music and the important self-representation they taught the nations youth, the Beatles will have an everlasting effect on this nation • The problem of constant slander against black musicians angered the race and pushed them toward change. For many blacks just playing to be happy was enough to break down the white wall. "Constant musical experimentation and exploration marked the 1950s..bebop, funk, progressive" all described the established genre of jazz (Batchelor). Bob Batchelor is a professor of mass communications at Kent State University and the author of several published books about history. The positive yet cautious black musicians try to look to the future for continuing their acceptance in society. The strive for success has led to many people believing "that it is time for white artists to pay more than respect to the black creators" (Chappell). Blacks have predominately strong personalities and tremendous determination to reach success. • Both African Americans and teenagers learned to be themeselves and be strong through music in the 1960’s and they both continue their prominent roles in society today.
thesis • Music during the 1960’s helped teenagers and African Americans stand up for themselves. For teenagers they found the Beatles who showed them how to take self-expression and turn it into standing up for important issues. African Americans used their troubled pasts and their undeniable talent to demand attention and respect in the usicindusrty and society.
objection • Dr. Spencer C. Tucker is the author or editor of more than 4o books and encyclopedias, he held the John Biggs chair in Military History at the Virginia Military institute, and he has been senior fellow in Military History at ABC-CLIO since 2003. With Tucker's expertise in history he argues the importance of the Vietnam war in American History, as a substantial turning point in history. Tucker declares that "the United States involvement in the war, led to a mass movement of people--students, writers, pacifists clergy members, and even some disillusioned Vietnam veterans--who used demonstrations, parades, and sit-ins to force politicians to recognize that the war was unpopular" (Antiwar Movement: Vietnam War). This point of view displays that all Antiwar protests were caused by the draft, the deaths, and the overall involvement of the United Sates, inferring that any other opposes of the war were just joining in. No other influential figures in America added to the people speaking out, just the war itself. • During the turning point of music in the 1950s blacks got the chance to be equal musicians with whites. However black women did not think this was the case. "Black women have been consistently defined out of rock and roll, and that is not an easy trend to reverse" (Thompson). The blacks women felt that they were being labeled as a housewife and given nothing more than a mop. For "women instrumentalists...financial success and fame were rarely attainable" (Austin). Many black women felt the racial integration begin to shine but gender discrimination darkening. • Although The Vietnam War and African American woman have strong arguments the music in the 1960’s gave teenagers and African Americans a voice.
Rebuttle • The Vietnam War took many lives in the 1960s, and gave teenagers something to speak out about, but there were other factors that helped teenagers feel they could speak out and stand up for what they believed in more than just the Vietnam War. Teenagers were coming from a time of conformity in the 1950s and did not feel capable of protest, until the Beatles "takeover“Brown also states that "The Beatles became a symbol of the rebellious spirit of the 1960s. They fostered the notion that kids should think for themselves..."(Brown). With this notion teenagers just needed something to think for themselves about and that is what the Vietnam War gave them, that is why there was so much opposition to the war. Not just because they disagreed with the government's actions, but because the war was something they could grasp on to a yell about, when teenagers had never yelled before. • While black women were feeling the pains of double discrimination a black mans future was looking successful. Women influenced the music business heavily but still felt forgotten. The "major influence of black women on the music that would become rock and roll came through the church" (Thompson). Many black women cherished their small achievements but black men were looking at the bigger picture. When some radio stations gave "the real credit to black artists" their voice was heard and now people knew the truth (Chappell). Black musicians struggled through the ages but received their shining moment when credit was given.
Reaffirm position • The Beatles allowed teenagers to care, to protest, and to live their lives the way they wanted to. Veronica Mjerol a contributor for the Scholastic news online states that "for most people who can remember the '60s seem to agree that no group had come close to replicating the Beatles" (Majerol) in a musical or cultural way. The Beatles changed the way teenage • Blacks led the way when they "got out of the swing and into this new rock thing...whites followed" (Chappell). The mere fact that black musicians had music so powerful it could pull whites in says that they truly were the best. The accomplishment of getting recognized and brought into the light is something many blacks were grateful for and despite the terrible gender discrimination black women realized it wasn't their time right then and waitedrs thought and showed them a new lifestyle choice.
Call to Action • Conformity and the lack of expression in the 1950s effected all members of the family. Men felt they need to stay under he radar and simply work and come home, women were the breeders, cooks, and cleaners. They sought to teach these ideals to their children. When all families feel they need to be the same, one decade is not going to change all families minds and conformity will remain. People have become more comfortable with self-expression, but people will continue to refrain from being themselves. According to Veronica Majerol " as the times changed so did the Beatles. Their hair shaggy hair grew even longer, and the band began making music that was more artistically daring..."(Majerol). The more daring the Beatles the more daring the rest of the teenage population. They introduced a new way of thinking, and a new way of living. A way of thinking and living that will never escape the mind of a young American. The way the Beatles presented themselves and the ideals each of them held caused teenagers to question the conforming authority of their parents and seek different life of self-expression, the Vietnam War is what gave teenagers something to fight about but was not the reason they decided to speak up. The Beatles made people happy o be who they were and proud of what they could accomplish in protest • Segregation in music has been a constant issue through the ages however in the 1950s black musicians took a stand against the racial discrimination. Race has been a huge controversy and continued over generations because it iThe turning point gave blacks a way to get in the music business and express themselves. "There ain't no mountain high enough Ain't no valley low enough Ain't no river wide enough To keep me from getting to you" (Gaye). The artist Marvin Gaye was an American singer-songwriter and musician that helped to shape the sound of Motown Records in the 1960s. These song lyrics not only show devotional love but also the commitment that nothing could stop a black musician and reaching success. Black men opened the door to integration in music and i believe they were a huge contributor to integration. In the 1950s and 1960s music gave black men opportunities in jazz and rock and roll however, despite integration, black women still suffered from gender discrimination.s difficult to change the minds of the people that lived through the age of discrimination.