Many world famous Artist were dutch. One of the most famous earlier artists was Hieronymus Bosch. In the golden age of the republic in the 17th century there emerged great artists such as Rembrandt van Rijn, Johannes Vermeer, Frans Hals, Carel Fabritius, Gerard Dou, Paulus Potter, Jacob Izaaksoon van Ruisdael or Jan Steen. Famous artists of later eras were Vincent van Gogh and Piet Mondriaan. M. C. Escher is a famous graphic designer. Dutch architects gave important impulses for the architecture of the 20th century. Hendrik Petrus Berlage and the architects of the De Stijl-group (Robert van't Hoff, J.J.P. Oud, Gerrit Rietveld) are some highlights. Johannes Duiker was a representative of the „Neues Bauen“ movement. The so-called Amsterdam-school (Michael de Klerk) made a remarkable contribution to expressionist architecture. After the World War II new, innovative dutch architects emerged. Aldo van Eyck and Herman Hertzbergermade a huge impression on structuralism. Piet Blom became famous because of his tree-houses.
The durch musical scene wasn’t on the same level as the rest of Europe in the regime of classical music. Only at the end of the 19th century did a professionalisation take place, resulting in the formation of many an orchestra and ensembles. Important dutch composers around 1800 were for example the german Johann Willhelm Wilms or Carolus Antonius Fodor. During the 19th century german romanticism dominated the currents of the music scene; one such example is Richard Hol. Bernard Zweers tried to develop a specific dutch national music later on. Julius Röntgen and Alphons Diepenbrock followed his experiments, with which dutch music found ist entrance into the international development. Important composers of the 20th century are Willem Pijper, Mathijs Vermeulen, Louis Andriessen, Otto Ketting, Ton de Leeuw, Theo Loevendie, Misha Mengelberg, Tristan Keuris und Klaas de Vries. (List of dutch composers of classical music) The most famous rock band Golden Earring had its greatest hit in the 1970s with “Radar Love”. Also well known in the 1970s were the classic rock band Ekseption with Rick van der Linden and Shocking Blue with their hit “Venus”. The Netherlands have a vibrant music scene of a high level. There are countless event localities and the artists are given alot of freedom in the media. Internationally famous musicians are for example Anouk Teeuwe or the groups Within Temptation and The Gathering (Band). The yearly held North Sea Jazz Festival in The Hague belongs to the most important Jazz events worldwide.
During the Golden Age (De Gouden Eeuw) not only Art flourished, but also literature with such fine examples as Joost van den Vondel and P. C. Hooft. During the german occupation (1940-1945) Anne Frank composed her world famous diary in Amsterdam. Important writers of the 20th century are Harry Mulisch, Jan Wolkers, Simon Vestdijk and Theun de Vries.
Erasmus von Rotterdam, Baruch Spinoza and Christiaan Huygens all come from the Netherlands. René Descartes spent much time in the Netherlands. During the modern times alot of scientists found refuge and possibilites to work. Modern Socialism was founded by the dutch S. Rudolf Steinmetz.