ANSI / ASHRAE / IESNA Standard 90.1 – 2010 Update & Overview Presented by The Energy Systems Laboratory Texas Engineering Experiment Station Texas A&M University System
AcknowledgmentsThanks to: • The American Recovery & Reinvestment Act (ARRA) • Department of Energy (U.S.DOE) • Texas State Energy Conservation Office (SECO)
PresenterLarry O. Degelman, P.E. • Registered professional engineer (M.E.) in Texas since 1977 • Consultant to Energy Systems Laboratory • Professor Emeritus of Architecture at Texas A&M (1977-2000) • Life member of ASHRAE, HBDP & BEMP Certification • Former member of ASHRAE Standards committee involved with work on Human Comfort, Ventilation and Energy Efficiency in buildings • Currently a member of ASHRAE Technical Committees, TC-4.2 (Climatic Information) and TC-4.7 (Energy Calculations) • Specializes in energy evaluations for new and retrofit designs for buildings, engineering design of HVAC systems and energy and life-cycle cost analyses for small commercial projects.
Part I: Workshop Introduction & Energy Code Status in TexasWhy Building Energy Efficiency Standards?
Part I: Workshop Introduction & Energy Code Status in TexasCommercial Buildings – Primary Energy Split Standard 90.1 covers five of these areas, accounting for 65.6 % of all energy usage in commercial buildings. DOE’s energy efficiency standards cover the rest. (e.g., Energy Star ratings.) Source: EIA Data * Statistical adjustment for unaccounted energy use (5.5%)
States that SECO shall establish and publish mandatory energy and water conservation design standards for each new state building or major renovation project SECO shall define “major renovation project” and shall review and update the standards biennially Part I: Workshop Introduction & Energy Code Status in Texas Chapter 447.004-TX Gov. Code
Part I: Workshop Introduction & Energy Code Status in Texas Texas Administrative Code (TAC) Amended §19.31-Requirement to Use Design Standards • Pursuant to Gov Code, §447.004, state agencies and institutions of higher education shall use the energy and water conservation design standards that SECO has adopted under this chapter, when constructing new state buildings or conducting major renovations of existing state buildings.
Part I: Workshop Introduction & Energy Code Status in Texas Texas Administrative Code (TAC) Amended §19.32-Energy & Water Design Standards (1) for any new construction or major renovation project, except low-rise residential buildings, with a design assignment made on or after September 1, 2011, ASHRAE 90.1-2010. (2) for any new construction or major renovation project for a public low-rise residential buildings with a design assignment made on or after June 1, 2011, IECC-2009.
Part I: Workshop Introduction & Energy Code Status in Texas Texas Administrative Code (TAC) Amended §19.32-Energy & Water Design Standards (3) Effective September 1, 2011, SECO adopts by reference the “Water Efficiency Standards for State Buildings and Institutions of Higher Education Facilities prepared by SECO-CPA and dated January 2011 as the water conservation design standards for new state buildings and major renovation projects. (a) SECO Water Standards published at: www.txbuildingenergycode.com
Part I: Workshop Introduction & Energy Code Status in Texas Texas Administrative Code (TAC) Amended §19.33-Major Renovation Projects • For the purpose of 34 TAC, Chapter 19, Subchapter C, a major renovation project is a building renovation or improvement where the implementation cost is $2,000,000.00 or more, based on the initial cost estimate.
Part I: Workshop Introduction & Energy Code Status in Texas Texas Administrative Code (TAC) Amended §19.34-Submission of Certification and Compliance Documentation • Before beginning construction of a new state building or a major renovation project, including a new building or major renovation project of a state-supported institution of higher education, a state agency or an institution of higher education shall submit to SECO a copy of the certification by the design architect or engineer that verifies to the agency or institution of that the construction or renovation complies with the standards that are established under this chapter, including engineering documentation.
Part I: Workshop Introduction & Energy Code Status in Texas TX State Code Compliance FormSample segment/Top
Part I: Workshop Introduction & Energy Code Status in Texas TX State Code Compliance FormSample segment/Bottom
State Website(s): State Energy Conservation Office (SECO): http://www.seco.cpa.state.tx.usSECO Bldg. Codes & Standards: http://www.txbuildingenergycode.comEnergy Systems Laboratory: http://www-esl.tamu.edu Primary Technical Contact: Felix Lopez, P.E.Comptroller of Public AccountsState Energy Conservation Office (CPA/SECO)111 E. 17th StreetLBJ State Office Bldg. Room #1114Austin, TX 78774PH: (512) 463-1080FX: (512) 475-2569Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Part I: Workshop Introduction & Energy Code Status in Texas TX State Code Info Sources
Part I: Workshop Introduction & Energy Code Status in Texas US DOE Efficiency Standards influences what ASHRAE 90.1 becomes By law, the Department of Energy must set energy efficiency standards for equipment and appliances at the maximum level of energy efficiency that is technically feasible and economically justified. DOE strives to establish standards that maximize consumer benefits and minimize negative impacts on manufacturers and other stakeholders. In 2006, the Department of Energy released a schedule for setting new appliance efficiency standards, outlining how DOE will address the appliance standards rulemaking backlog and meet the statutory requirements established in the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) as modified by the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) 2005. With the recent passage of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, Congress has increased the number of rulemakings DOE must issue beyond the obligations set forth in EPAct 2005, bringing the level of appliance standards activity to unprecedented levels. State energy offices can also have a large impact on energy efficiency through standards, incentives, and efficiency programs. Utilities, working alone or with state energy offices, may also offer incentives for efficiency improvements. Utility-sponsored efficiency programs are often targeted at achieving peak load reductions.
Part I: Workshop Introduction & Energy Code Status in Texas DOE as a Partner to ASHRAE
Part I: Workshop Introduction & Energy Code Status in Texas DOE Schedule for Issuing New Energy Efficiency Standards Appliance Standards Developed and Issued by DOE (1987 through 2007) • Residential Refrigerators (two standards) • Residential Room Air Conditioners • Residential Central AC & HP • Residential Water Heaters • Residential Furnaces and Boilers • Residential Small Furnaces, <45 kBtu/hr, (2 stds) • Mobile Home Furnaces • Residential Dishwashers • Residential Clothes Washers (two standards) • Residential Clothes Dryers • Residential Electric Ranges and Ovens • Commercial Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts • Commercial Warm Air Furnaces • Commercial Water-Cooled AC/Water- Source HP* • Commercial Water Heaters* • Commercial Distribution Transformers, Medium Voltage Dry and Liquid-Immersed _________________________________________ * DOE Adopted ASHRAE 90.1 in October 1999. Standards Issued by DOE Between January 2008 and July 2011 • Residential Water Heaters • Residential Direct Heating Equipment • Residential Pool Heaters • Commercial Small Electric Motors (<1 HP) • Incandescent Reflector Lamps • Fluorescent Lamps • Commercial Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts • Residential Gas and Electric Ranges and Ovens & Microwave Ovens • Residential Clothes Dryers • Residential Room Air Conditioners • Packaged Terminal Air Conditioners and HPs • Residential Central Air Conditioners and HPs • Commercial Clothes Washers • Commercial Beverage Vending Machines • Commercial Refrigeration Products • Residential Refrigerators • Battery Chargers and External Power Supplies • Residential Clothes Washers
Part I: Workshop Introduction & Energy Code Status in Texas Commercial Energy Codes Adoption Growth from 1992 to 2008 Source: EIA Data
Part II. Overview of 90.1-2010 (221-page document) • It supercedes ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2007 by adding 60 Addenda. • It will become the reference standard for the 2012 IECC. • It is the professional “standard of care” for energy efficiency set by ASHRAE consensus. • Format: Structured like a code document, with a consistent numbering scheme. • Estimated savings compared to the 90.1-2007 version are about 25%, and about 30% compared to the 90.1-2004 version. • Climate zones: • Defined geographically by county lines, not by individual city or climatic Degree Days. • Metropolitan areas kept together.
Part II. Overview of 90.1-2010 Energy Economics Criteria not on lowest energy use, but rather, on energy costs. Optimizations are Based on Life Cycle Cost (LCC)
Part II. Overview of 90.1-2010 Energy Economics
Part II. Overview of 90.1-2010 The Document Structure Sections in the document Technical Sections Outline • Purpose • Scope • Definitions, Abbrev. & Acronyms • Administration and enforcement • Building envelope • HVAC • SWH • Power • Lighting • Other equipment • Energy Cost Budget (ECB) • Normative References Appendices A – G x.1 General – Scope & conditions x.2 Compliance Paths x.3 Simplified Building x.4 Mandatory Provisions x.5 Prescriptive Compliance Path x.6 Alternative Compliance Path x.7 Submittals – Drawings, manuals, labeling, etc. x.8 Product Information – Equipment efficiencies, installation requirements, etc. “Exceptions” are common and are stated under each requirement in the standard.
Part II. Overview of 90.1-2010 Organization of Technical Sections X.1 General – Scope, other special conditions X.2 Compliance Paths X.3 Simplified Building (only used in HVAC) X.4 Mandatory Provisions • Must be followed for all buildings. X.5 Prescriptive Compliance Path • Must be followed or traded-offw/ ECB X.6 Alternative Compliance Path (only in section 5, Envelope, and section 9, Lighting) X.7 Submittals – Drawings, manuals, labeling, etc. X.8 Product Information – Equipment efficiencies, installation requirements, etc.
Part II. Overview of 90.1-2010 Section 1 – Purpose The purpose of this standard is to provide minimum requirements for the energy-efficient design of buildings except low-rise residential buildings for: • design, construction, and plan for O&M, and ** • Utilization of on-site, renewable energy sources. _______________________________________________________ • “Low-rise residential” is defined as single-family homes, manufactured housing, and other residential structures that are less than 4 stories above grade. _______________________________________________________ ** Note: The portion in red is new in the 2010 version.
Provisions apply to: New building portions and systems in new and existing (renovated) buildings. New equipment or systems that are identified as part of industrial or manufacturing processes. Envelope: if heated by a heating system with an output capacity ≥ 3.4 Btu/h-ft2 or if cooled by a cooling system with a sensible output capacity ≥ 5 Btu/h-ft2 Virtually all mechanical, power, and lighting systems are covered _____________________________________________________ ** Note: Red text portion new in the 2010 version. Part II. Overview of 90.1-2010 Section 2 – Scope
Semiheated space: heated at ≥ 3.4 Btu/h-ft2, but not classified as conditioned. Unconditioned space: e.g., crawl spaces, attics, etc. Part II. Overview of 90.1-2010 Section 3 – Definitions • Conditioned space: • cooled by a cooling system with a sensible output capacity >5 Btu/h-ft2 • heated by a heating system with an output capacity ≥ Table 3.1 • indirectly conditioned space – adjacent to conditioned space but neither heated nor cooled
Part II. Overview of 90.1-2010 Section 3 – Space Definitions Figure 5-5 Space Definitions
Part II. Overview of 90.1-2010 Section 3 – Definitions 3.3 Abbreviations, Acronyms • Some useful terms: • EER = Energy Efficiency Ratio (Btu out/watt-hr. in, at approx. 95F) • kW/ton=12/EER • SEER=Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio (Btu out/watt-hr. over all season.) • IEER= Integrated Energy Efficiency Ratio (similar to SEER) • COP= Coefficient of Performance (Btu out/Btu in, similar to “efficiency”) • EER= 3.4 * COP • HSPF=Heating Seasonal Performance Factor (Btu out/watt-hr.) • IPLV=Integrated part load value = could be COP or EER at partial load. • LPD=Lighting Power Density (W/ft2) • EUI=Energy Utilization Index (Btu/ft2/yr)
Part II. Overview of 90.1-2010 EUI Expressed Two Ways
Standard 90.1 applies to: New buildings Additions to existing buildings* Alterations to existing buildings* Replacement of parts of existing bldgs* Changes in HVAC* * Additions & alterations permit tradeoffs and have other exceptions. Part II. Overview of 90.1-2010 Section 4 – Administration & Enforcement
Part II. Overview of 90.1-2010 Technical Sections (5 – 10) Building System (technical sections) Compliance Options Prescriptive Option 5. Envelope 6. HVAC Mandatory Provisions (required for most compliance options) Trade Off Option Energy Code Compliance 7. SWH 8. Power Energy Cost Budget 9. Lighting 10. Other Simplified
Part II. Overview of 90.1-2010 Eight Climate Zones Zones based on several climatic parameters: Locations are listed in Appendix B on county-by-county basis for the 50 US states.
Part II. Overview of 90.1-2010 Texas Climate Zones Insulation not required for non-residential “mass walls” in locations below the “warm-humid” line.
Part II. Overview of 90.1-2010 Sections 11 and 12 Section … Contents 5 Building envelope 6 HVAC 7 SWH 8 Power 9 Lighting 10 Other equipment 11 Energy Cost Budget (ECB) 12 Normative References Appendices A – G
Part II. Overview of 90.1-2010 Energy Cost Budget (ECB) Method Section 11 • Allows tradeoffs between building functions • Limits allowable energy costs of the design to those of a building meeting the standard • Whole-building performance approach
Part II. Overview of 90.1-2010 Normative References Section 12 • Normative (read “mandatory”) reference documents • Includes test methods, rating procedures, and other standards
Part II. Overview of 90.1-2010 Appendices NORMATIVE Assembly U-, C-, and F-Factor Determination Climate Zones Designations Envelope Trade-Off Methodology Climatic Data Appendix G. Performance Rating Method (new) INFORMATIVE Informative References Addenda Description Information
Part II. Overview of 90.1-2010 Assembly U.F., C-Factor & F-Factor Determination Normative App. A • Includes pre-calculated U-factors, C-factors, and F-factors • Above-grade walls • Below-grade walls • Floors • Slab-on-grade floors • Opaque doors • Fenestration
Part II. Overview of 90.1-2010 Building Envelope Climate Criteria Normative Appendix B • Tables B-1, B-2, and B-3 contain eight (8) climate zones designations for U.S. counties, Canadian Provinces & cities and other foreign cities. • Table B-4 lists the climate zone criteria in terms of HDD65 and CDD50 ranges.
Part II. Overview of 90.1-2010 Envelope Trade-off Option Normative Appendix C • Appendix C contains the very detailed procedures (including equations) for calculating the building envelope trade-off. • Up through the 2007 version, a computer program (EnvStd) was included in the 90.1 user’s manual, which calculated the “Envelope Performance Factor” that allowed trade-offs among roof and wall elements. This was discontinued with the Version 6.0 issued in 2007. The “metric” of trade-off is an energy dollar trade-off that can be demonstrated by the same method as the ECB methodology.
Part II. Overview of 90.1-2010 Climatic DataNormative Appendix D • 34 pages of climatic data for approx. 900 US, Canadian, and international cities. • HDD65 and CDD50 • Heating & cooling DB & WB design temperatures and the “number of hours between 8 am and 4 pm with Tdb between 55o and 69o” for HVAC calculations
The performance rating method is a modification of the ECB method in Section 11 and is intended for use in rating the energyefficiencyof building designs that exceed the requirements of the standard. It is not an alternative path for compliance; rather, it is for those wishing to quantify performance that substantially exceeds the requirements of Standard 90.1, typically to gain LEED rating points. Like ECB, it requires the use of approved simulation software. Part II. Overview of 90.1-2010 Performance Rating Method Appendix G
Part III. ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010 Updates (from 2007) 90.1-2007 vs. 90.1-2010 (90.1-2007 became the Texas Design Standard on Sept 1st, 2005)
Standard 90.1 is always under “continuous maintenance”. Goal of 90.1-2010 is that it has an energy savings of 30% compared to 2004. Version 2007 only had a few percentage points (about 5%) savings compared to the 2004 version. Standard 90.1-2010 = Std 90.1-2007 + 60 Addenda. Part III. ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010 Updates (from 2007) Continuous Updating and Savings Goal
Part III. ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010 Updates (from 2007) 90.1 Historical Timeline A consensus standard with a rigorous update history!
Samples of some addenda proposed or approved for the 90.1-2010 version D – Daylighting now enabled by glass VT (visible transmittance requirement, still pending.) E – Airside Energy Recovery changes F – Ballasted and vented roofs, including “cool” and vegetative roofs H – Dual minimum zone controls (revised exceptions to reheated or recooled air) L – Closed circuit cooling towers (added into Table 6.8.1G that addresses Performance Requirements for Heat Rejection Equipment) M – Chiller efficiencies, (adjusted maximum kW/ton and IPLV ratings) N – Single zone VAV control (supply fans to be controlled by two-speed motors or variable speed drives.) R – Change Appendix G to normative (mandatory language) will allow Appendix G to be referenced by other standards; e.g., Std. 189.1 Part III. ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010 Updates (from 2007) Updates Samples of Changed Topics
Part III. ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010 Updates (from 2007) Additional Changed Topics All approved 90.1-2007 addenda have become 90.1-2010
Part III. ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010 Updates (from 2007) Changes: More stringent LPDs • Addendum “by” changes: • For most building types, the LPDs are reduced. • Table shows samples. • Average LPDs: • 90.1-2007……… ave=1.09 • 90.1-2010……... ave=0.906 • Difference …….. -16.9% 2007 2010