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Period 2 1607 - 1754

Period 2 1607 - 1754

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Period 2 1607 - 1754

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  1. Period 21607 - 1754 Europeans and American Indians fought for dominance, control, and security in North America, and distinctive colonial and native societies developed.

  2. Period 21607 - 1754Key Concept 2.1 Differences in imperial goals, cultures, and the North American environments that different empires confronted led Europeans to develop diverse patterns of colonization.

  3. Spanish, French, Dutch, and British colonizers embraced different social/economic goals, cultural assumptions, and folkways, resulting in varied models of colonization. • Spain • tight control over process of colonization • convert or exploit the native population • French & Dutch • utilized trade alliances & intermarriage with natives • acquire furs & other products to export to Europe

  4. Spanish, French, Dutch, and British colonizers embraced different social/economic goals, cultural assumptions, and folkways, resulting in varied models of colonization. • British • establish colonies based on agriculture • utilized large numbers of men & women • acquire land, populate settlements • importation of indentured servants • hostile relationships with American Indians • due to expansion of settlements • King Philips War

  5. British-American system of slavery developed from economic, demographic, and geographic characteristics of the British controlled regions of the world. • miscegenation • sexual relations or marriage between people of two different races • allowed in Spanish, French, and Dutch colonies • with native people and, • in Spain’s case, with enslaved Africans! • in English colonies, • males & females rarely intermarried • with natives or Africans • resulted in rigid racial hierarchy!

  6. British-American system of slavery developed from economic, demographic, and geographic characteristics of the British controlled regions of the world. • Atlantic slave trade (causes) • abundance of land • shortage of indentured servants • difficulty of enslaving native peoples • demand for colonial goods • Triangular trade • Middle Passage • Barbados Slave Code

  7. Middle Passage

  8. British-American system of slavery developed from economic, demographic, and geographic characteristics of the British controlled regions of the world. • Barbados Slave Code • a law passed by England to provide a legal base for slavery in the Caribbean island of Barbados • the code's preamble, which stated that the law's purpose was to "protect them [slaves] as we do men's other goods and Chattels,“ • any article of tangible property other than land, buildings, and other things annexed to land

  9. British-American system of slavery developed from economic, demographic, and geographic characteristics of the British controlled regions of the world. • Barbados Slave Code • law required masters to provide each slave with one set of clothing per year • no standards for slaves' diet, housing, or working conditions • denied slaves even basic rights guaranteed under English common law, such as the right to life • allowed the slaves' owners to do entirely as they wished to their slaves, including mutilating them and burning them alive, without fear of reprisal

  10. British-American system of slavery developed from economic, demographic, and geographic characteristics of the British controlled regions of the world. • Bacon’s Rebellion • Nathaniel Bacon • led frontier farmers against government of Virginia • former indentured servants denied land • William Berkeley • Governor, refused protection against western Indians • Effects: • decrease import of indentured servants • turn to African slavery for labor supply • laws make slaves, and their progeny, slaves for life!

  11. British-American system of slavery developed from economic, demographic, and geographic characteristics of the British controlled regions of the world. • Overt/covert forms of resistance to slavery • slow pace of work • sabotage equipment • run away • revolt • New York – 1712 • Stono Rebellion - 1739 • Denmark Vesey – 1822 (planned) • Nat Turner - 1831

  12. Environmental & geographic variations, including climate & natural resources, contributed to regional differences in the British colonies. • New England Colonies • environmental & geographic conditions: • rocky soil • non-navigable rivers • short growing season • harsh winters • fish, fur, lumber enterprises develop • waterfalls provide source of power • leads to manufacturing & industry to develop • major commercial center

  13. Environmental & geographic variations, including climate & natural resources, contributed to regional differences in the British colonies. • New England Colonies • Plymouth/Massachusetts Bay Colonies • Puritanism • group of Protestants in 16th century within the Church of England (Anglican) • demanded simplification of doctrine and worship • advocated greater strictness in religious discipline • puritan (lowercase) • a person who is strict in moral or religious matters, often excessively so! • Puritan (Protestant) Work Ethic • “idle hands are the devil’s workshop”

  14. Environmental & geographic variations, including climate & natural resources, contributed to regional differences in the British colonies. • Middle Colonies • environmental & geographic conditions: • rich soil – export wheat, grains (Bread Basket Colonies) • forests – lumber, ship building • textile & iron industries develop • ethnically & religiously diverse • English, Swedes, Dutch, Germans, Scots-Irish and French • Dutch Mennonites, French Huguenots, German Baptists, Portuguese Jews, English Anglicans, Lutherans, Quakers, Moravians, Amish, Dunkers, Presbyterians, and Catholics

  15. Environmental & geographic variations, including climate & natural resources, contributed to regional differences in the British colonies. • Pennsylvania • William Penn • The Quaker “Holy Experiment” • “inner light” in each person • services without formal ministers • dressed plainly • no deference to persons of rank • embraced pacifism • no military service • no land-owning aristocracy • adult male settlers receive 50 acres of land & right to vote

  16. Environmental & geographic variations, including climate & natural resources, contributed to regional differences in the British colonies. • Pennsylvania • Government • a representative assembly • freedom of religion • Native-American Relations • “people approached in friendship respond in friendship” • letter to the Delaware • paid the Delaware for their land • regulated trade between tribes and colonists • set up a court for adjudication of disputes • no disputes for over 50 years!

  17. Environmental & geographic variations, including climate & natural resources, contributed to regional differences in the British colonies. • Southern Colonies • environmental & geographic conditions: • warm climate – long growing season • swampy land - perfect for crops such as tobacco, rice, indigo, and sugar • staple crop economy • cash crops – sold for profit, not consumption • tobacco, rice, sugar cane, cotton • slave labor utilized • in places, slaves constitute majority of population

  18. Environmental & geographic variations, including climate & natural resources, contributed to regional differences in the British colonies. • Jamestown - 1607 • joint-stock company • Virginia Company • tobacco cultivation • John Rolfe • indentured servants • leads to Bacon’s Rebellion and slavery • Native-American Relations • colonial desire for land & crop space leads to warfare • Anglo-Powhatan Wars I & II

  19. Period 21607 - 1754Key Concept 2.2 European colonization efforts stimulated intercultural contact and intensified conflict between various groups of colonizers and native peoples.

  20. Competition over resources led to conflict within & between North American colonial possessions and American Indians. • European/American Conflicts • Anglo-Powhatan Wars – 1610 – 1646 • 3 wars • resulted in a boundary being defined between the Indians and English lands • King Philips War – 1675 - 1678 • New England Wampanoag natives defeated • colonial expansion ensured

  21. Competition over resources led to conflict within & between North American colonial possessions and American Indians. • European/American Conflicts • Beaver Wars – 1630’s – 1640’s • encouraged and armed by their Dutch and English trading partners, • the Iroquois expanded their territory and sought to monopolize the fur trade • realigned the tribal geography of North America • destroyed several large tribal confederacies • Chickasaw War – 1736 • Chickasaw vs. the French • Chickasaw maintained themselves albeit with great loss to both population and way of life • resulted in enmity between the Illini and the Chickasaw

  22. Competition over resources led to conflict within & between North American colonial possessions and American Indians. • New sources of labor • Native Indian Slavery • easy to escape, blend into other tribal societies • Indentured servitude • period of indenture – 4 – 7 years • freedom dues • African slavery • slaves for life • introduces institutional racism!

  23. Competition over resources led to conflict within & between North American colonial possessions and American Indians. • Acquire commodities valued in Europe • fur • lumber • fish • naval stores • pitch • tobacco • rice • indigo

  24. Competition over resources led to conflict within & between North American colonial possessions and American Indians. • Mistrust over conflicting interests of European leaders and colonial citizens • Woolen Act - 1699 • prohibited American colonists from exporting wool • restricted the import of woolens and linens created in other areas of the British Empire

  25. Competition over resources led to conflict within & between North American colonial possessions and American Indians. • Mistrust over conflicting interests of European leaders and colonial citizens • Mercantilism • Navigation Acts • Salutary Neglect • Molasses Act – 1733 • tax on molasses • not to raise money • but to regulate trade

  26. Competition over resources led to conflict within & between North American colonial possessions and American Indians. • Mistrust over conflicting interests of European leaders and colonial citizens • Smuggling • reaction to the heavy taxes and regulations imposed by mercantilist trade policies • widespread in Spanish & English colonies

  27. Clashes between European and American Indians social & economic values affects both cultures. • Trade goods & disease cause cultural & demographic change • Catawba Nation • South Carolina • decimated by smallpox epidemics, tribal warfare and social disruption • declined markedly in number in the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries

  28. Clashes between European and American Indians social & economic values affects both cultures. • Trade goods & disease cause cultural & demographic change • Huron Confederacy • “As the European demand for furs increased during the seventeenth century, both the Iroquois and the Huron began to expand westward in search of new furs and new Indian trading partners. This expansion brought about some violent conflicts between the Huron and the western Indian nations such as the Winnebago (Ho Chunk) and Ottawa. In addition, conflict between the Huron and the Iroquois also increased.”

  29. Clashes between European and American Indians social & economic values affects both cultures. “In 1648, the Seneca and the Mohawk, both members of the Iroquois League of Five Nations, set out to destroy the Huron trading network. The Seneca, armed with firearms obtained from the Dutch, attacked the Huron town of Teanaostaiaé. Three hundred of the 2,000 inhabitants of the town were killed and 700 were taken captive. The following year, the Iroquois, supplied with 400 guns and unlimited ammunition on credit by the Dutch, attacked and destroyed the Huron. This marked the end of the Huron confederacy. Many of the Huron people took refuge with other Indian nations in the Great Lakes area. A new nation, however, the Wyandot, composed of Huron refugees as well as other Indian refugees, soon emerged, but did not challenge the Iroquois supremacy.” Native American Netroots

  30. Clashes between European and American Indians social & economic values affects both cultures. • Trade goods & disease cause cultural & demographic change • Wampanoag • About 1614, a series of three epidemics, inadvertently introduced through contact with Europeans, began to sweep through the Indian villages in Massachusetts. At least ten Wampanoag villages were abandoned because there were no survivors. The Wampanoag population decreased from 12,000 to 5,000.

  31. Clashes between European and American Indians social & economic values affects both cultures. • Trade goods & disease cause cultural & demographic change • Wampanoag • In 1675, pushed by the Puritans who demanded that the Indians obey Puritan law and who severely punished the Indians who did not • Metacom asserted the sovereignty of his people by going to war • As a result of this war – commonly called King Philip’s War – many of the smaller Indian nations were destroyed or scattered

  32. Clashes between European and American Indians social & economic values affects both cultures. • Trade goods & disease cause cultural & demographic change • Metacom stumbled into an ambush in which he was shot and killed. The English drew and quartered his body and took his head to Plymouth where it was displayed to the public for 20 years • “Head was carried in triumph to Plymouth, where it arrived on the very Day that the Church there was keeping a Solemn Thanksgiving to God. God sent ‘em in the Head of a Leviathan for a Thanksgiving-Feast.” • Cotton Mather • By the end of the war, the Wampanoag were nearly exterminated: only 400 survived

  33. Clashes between European and American Indians social & economic values affects both cultures. • Spanish worldview • seek accommodation with Native culture • after Pueblo Revolt – 1680, • the Pueblo Indians gain a measure of freedom from future Spanish efforts to eradicate their culture and religion • Spanish issued substantial land grants • appointed a public defender to protect the rights of the Indians • did not again attempt to impose a theocracy on the Pueblo who continued to practice their traditional religion

  34. Clashes between European and American Indians social & economic values affects both cultures. • English worldview • land ownership • private vs. tribal/communal • gender roles • matrilineal v. patrilineal • matriarchal v. patriarchal • reinforced through contact/conflict • “praying towns” • seek religious conversion, abandonment of native ways • gatherer-hunter lifestyle, clothing, rituals, etc…

  35. Clashes between European and American Indians social & economic values affects both cultures. • American Indian warfare increases in intensity & destructiveness • deadlier weapons • long rifle • musket • alcohol • great disrupter of Indian life • greater susceptibility to effects

  36. Period 21607 - 1754Key Concept 2.3 The increasing political, economic, and cultural exchanges within the “Atlantic World” had a profound impact on the development of colonial societies in North America.

  37. “Atlantic World” commercial, religious, philosophical, and political interactions among Europeans, Africans, and American Natives stimulated economic growth, expanded social networks, & reshaped labor systems. • Atlantic economy • shared labor market • servants, slaves, free blacks • wide exchange of goods • African slave trade • products of Americas • fur, lumber, fish, naval stores, pitch, tobacco, rice, indigo, sugar cane, etc …

  38. “Atlantic World” commercial, religious, philosophical, and political interactions among Europeans, Africans, and American Natives stimulated economic growth, expanded social networks, & reshaped labor systems. • Anglicization (convert to English norms) • Political communities • Pennsylvania • William Penn • The Quaker “Holy Experiment” • “inner light” in each person • services without formal ministers • dressed plainly • no deference to persons of rank • embraced pacifism • no military service • no land-owning aristocracy • adult male settlers receive 50 acres of land & right to vote

  39. “Atlantic World” commercial, religious, philosophical, and political interactions among Europeans, Africans, and American Natives stimulated economic growth, expanded social networks, & reshaped labor systems. • Pennsylvania • Government • a representative assembly • freedom of religion • Native-American Relations • “people approached in friendship respond in friendship” • paid the Delaware for their land • regulated trade between tribes and colonists • set up a court for adjudication of disputes • no disputes for over 50 years!

  40. “Atlantic World” commercial, religious, philosophical, and political interactions among Europeans, Africans, and American Natives stimulated economic growth, expanded social networks, & reshaped labor systems. • Anglicization (convert to English norms) • Commercial ties • Joint-stock companies • Virginia Company • London Company

  41. “Atlantic World” commercial, religious, philosophical, and political interactions among Europeans, Africans, and American Natives stimulated economic growth, expanded social networks, & reshaped labor systems. • Anglicization (convert to English norms) • Legal structures