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Turbulent Times

Turbulent Times

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Turbulent Times

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  1. Turbulent Times Before the Roman Civil War

  2. time period dominated by a few important political figures • contest for power • political and social unrest People to Know

  3. Born in 106 BC in Arpinum • No one in his family had held offices in Rome – he is a “novushomō” – a new man to the government • In 63 BC he is consul and uncovers a conspiracy to overthrow the government • Is best known as an orator, writer and senator • His letters to his friend Atticus give us a daily account of what took place in Rome at this turbulent time. Cicero

  4. Born in 100 BC • Was a Populares – wanted to help the people not the aristocracy • Enters politics about 78 BC • 60 BC begins an alliance with Pompey and Crassus – First Triumvirate • 59 BC – holds consulship • In Gaul from 58-50 BC – conquers huge expanses of territory – loyal army Gaius Julius Caesar

  5. Born 106 BC, dies 48 BC • consul three times • celebrates three military triumphs • began military career in Sulla’s army • military campaigns against pirates, Sicily, Africa, around Black Sea • 60 BC- First Triumvirate with Caesar and Crassus • Was an Optimate, who supported the Senate and aristocracy Pompey

  6. 115 BC – 53 BC • Roman politician and general • wealthiest man in Rome and one of the richest of all time • gains political power by putting down a slave revolt • 70 BC- consulship of Pompey and Crassus • First Triumvirate with Pompey and Caesar Crassus

  7. 78 Death of Sulla • 77 Pompey defeats political rivals in defense of Sulla • 76 Attempts to restore power to Tribunes • 75 Lex Aurelia- allows Tribunes to hold later offices, Cicero Quaestor • 74 Rome acquires Bithynia and Cyrene, fights pirates • 73 Rising of Spartacus and slave revolt • 72 Spartacus continues revolt; Pompey’s rival assassinated • 71 Spartacus defeated by Crassus; Pompey returns from fighting 78-71 BC

  8. 70 Consulship of Crassus and Pompey • 67 LexGabinia gives Pompey extraordinary command to defeat pirates • 66 LexManilia gives Pompey command against Mithridates • 65 Crassus becomes Censor; Pompey campaigns in Caucuses • 64 Pompey fights in Syria 70-64 BC

  9. Cicero becomes consul • Caesar elected Pontifex Maximus • Birth of Octavian (Augustus) • Catilinarian conspiracy and executions 63 BC

  10. 62 Clodius profanes Bona Dea festival; Pompey conquers East • 61 Pompey’s triumph; Caesar governor of further Spain Allogbroges revolt • 60 Caesar returns from Spain First Triumvirate • 59 Caesar is consul Pompey marries Julia Caesar receives Cisalpine Gaul and Illyricum • 58 Cicero exiled Caesar defeats Helvetii 62-58 BC

  11. 57 Riots in Rome between Clodius and Milo Return of Cicero Pompey concerned with food supply Caesar defeats Belgae and Nervii • 56 disagree among triumviri Cicero attacks Caesar’s land law Caesar campaigns against Veniti and Morini • 55 2nd Consulship of Pompey and Crassus Caesar massacres 2 tribes and invades Britian 57-55 BC

  12. 54 Pompey governs Spain remotely (from Rome) death of Julia Riots in Rome Caesar’s 2nd British expedition Crassus prepares for Parthian campaigns • 53 more riots Crassus defeated and killed Caesar partly pacifies Gaul 54-53 BC

  13. 52 Milo kills Clodius Pompey sole consul Gauls revolt under Vercingetorix • 51 Optimate attacks on Caesar • 50 Senate vetoes proposal for Pompey and Caesar to disarm Senate asks Pompey to save the state Tribunes leave Rome Caesar crosses Rubicon into Italy 53-50 BC