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Production Operations Management

Production Operations Management

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Production Operations Management

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  1. Production Operations Management Process Technology & Layout U. Akinc Bus 241

  2. Various Technologies • Information Technology • Product Technology • Process Technology Bus 241

  3. Reasons for Technology Some of the competitive priorities • Improved Product and Service Quality • Lower Cost • Increased Responsiveness to Market • Increased Responsiveness to Customer • Safety Bus 241

  4. Barriers to Implementation of Technology • Difficulty in Financial Justification • Lack of Understanding by Management • Concern for the Impact of Technology on the Human Resources traditional ROI based capital budgeting can’t consider non-financial benefits Resistance to change, having to learn “another way” of doing things Fear of loss of jobs due to automation Bus 241

  5. Information and Communication Technologies • Electronic Data Interchange • Bar Coding (UPC) • Electronic Pagers • Cellular Telephones • Internet/e-Mail • Intranet Bus 241

  6. Bar Code Technology • Speeds Data Entry • Increases Data Accuracy • Reduces Material Handling Labor • Easily Monitors Labor Efficiency Bus 241

  7. Process Technology • Technology: Manual, Automated or Mental Processes that are Used to Transform Inputs Into Products and Services • Advanced Manufacturing Technology or Automation: Substitution of Machinesfor Human Physical and mental work. • Key to usage of automation: Repeatability A task that is performed in large number of repetitions is more apt to be automated Bus 241

  8. Automation and Operations Focus Line-Flow = flow-shop • Product Focus: High Volume Standard Products imply High Degree of Repeatability • Automation is natural • Process Focus: Low Volumes of a wide variety of product and services imply limited repeatability • Automation is more challenging In the form of fixed automation Bus 241

  9. Fixed Automation Automation of the processes and transfer of parts among stations. Characterized by: • High set up cost • Rigid Capabilities • Extreme efficiency Examples: • Assembly Lines • Transfer Lines • Process industries (e.g., petro-chemicals) Sometimes referred to as Detroit type automation Machines that are linked with automatic materials handling Bus 241

  10. An example of fixed automation: Egg processing Bus 241

  11. Flexible Automation Automatic Processes that can be easily changed from one task to another. Characterized by: • Low set up costs • A range of capabilities • Reasonably Efficient Example: • Job Shop Bus 241

  12. Group Technology Another Attempt to obtain the efficiency of product focus without giving up the flexibility of process focus Elements of Group Technology: • Part Families based on commonality of • Processing Steps • Part Geometry • Manufacturing Cells: Arrangement of Equipment best suited for a family Bus 241

  13. Computer Integrated Manufacturing(CIM) Integration of total manufacturing enterprise through the use of integrated systems and data communications coupled with new management philosophy that improve organizational and personnel efficiency. (SME) Bus 241

  14. CIM An Umbrella term to encompass the integration of: • Product Design/Engineering • Process Planning /Development • Manufacturing Operations • Production/Inventory Control Bus 241

  15. Components of CIM • 1. CAD: Computer Assisted Design: Use of Computers in interactive engineering drawing, storage and manipulation of existing designs. • 2. CAM: Computer Assisted Manufacture: Use of Computers to program, direct and control manufacturing equipment in the fabrication of parts. Bus 241

  16. Components of CIM (cont’d) • 3. CAPP Computer Assisted Process Planning: Selecting operations, their sequences, tools and material handling systems using interactive computer systems • 4. NC Machines Numerically Controlled Machines: Machines which take their instructions from a control device that can be programmed and reprogrammed in software Bus 241

  17. Components of CIM (cont’d) • 5.Robotics Versatile, programmable devices capable of human like operations. • Used Mostly in: • Hazardous • Repetitive tasks • Handling Heavy Parts • Such as: • Spot welding • Inspection • Circuit board Assembly • Spray Painting Bus 241

  18. A Multi-Axes Robot Merlin1 Bus 241

  19. A Merlin robot programmed to cut carpet to specified sizes Merlin2 Bus 241

  20. A Merlin Robot spot welding Merlin3 Bus 241

  21. Anatomy of a Merlin robot (has three degrees of freedom or axes) Bus 241

  22. Gantry Robots work like “Etch-a-sketch”. Movement is on 3 linear axes (x,y,z) as opposed to rotational as in Merlin. This robot is installing the wind shield on a car Gantry1 Bus 241

  23. Another Gantry robot: cutting cloth Gantry2 Bus 241

  24. Components of CIM (cont’d) • 6. AGV Automatically Guided Vehicles • 7. AS/RS Automated Storage and Retrieval Systems Please visit the link Bus 241

  25. Automatically Guided vehicle examples Bus 241

  26. Infrastructure of CIM Use of integrated computer software for • Production Scheduling • Inventory Control • Capacity Planning • Shop Floor Control Bus 241

  27. Layout Planning • Selecting location for and transfer routes and means among work departments: • Traditional types: • Functional (Process Focus) • Line Flow (Product focus) • Fixed Position (Project) • Modern • Group Technology Bus 241

  28. Functional Layout Most appropriate for process focus Turning Packing Gluing Painting Sanding Planing Drilling Cutting Resources are organized into functional departments Bus 241

  29. Line Flow Layout Most appropriate for Product Focus A E B C B D E A C E D A B B C Product flows through processes A-E in a sequence dictated by the assembly requirements of the product. D Bus 241

  30. Manufacturing Cells in Group Technology Cell A Refer back to slide number 12: Group Technology. Here the departments are arranged to produce families of similar parts efficiently Cell B Planing Painting Cell C Bus 241

  31. A Part Family Bus 241

  32. Manufacturing (GT) Cell Bus 241

  33. Product Variety and Volume Product Process Matrix Many Products- Low Volume Several Products- High Volume One Product- Very High Volume Low Volume- Unique No Flow Project Identified Process Pattern Job Shop Jumbled Flow Mixed with Dominant Flows Batch Assembly Line Line Flow Continuous or Automated Continuous Process Bus 241