Designing for Waste Prevention, Recycling & Composting NNECERAPPA University of Vermont - March 2010 Erica Spiegel Corey Berman UVM Physical Plant Department
Session Outline • Introduction – (Attendee expectations) • Snapshot of UVM Recycling Program • Measuring the Waste Stream • Davis Center Case Study: Building Design & Operations for Recycling • Moving Beyond Recycling: Waste Prevention • Q & A – Wrap Up
Recycling Collection System • “Single Stream” recycling for all paper, cans, bottles, plastics • Custodial Services staff involved in collecting materials within all buildings • In-house Recycling crew picks up from all buildings (loading docks & exteriors) • All materials are delivered to a municipally-owned MRF (5 miles from campus) • Pay “tip fee” or receive revenue share…depending on market. • Contracted services for: • Trash collection (dumpsters & compactors) • cardboard recycling (dumpsters) • food waste/compostables.
3 FTE’s Daily collection route using a side-load recycle truck ~100 service locations & buildings Daily pickup of small “house” waste Daily pickup of bulky waste, e-waste and surplus property/furniture using stake-body truck Special and seasonal collection programs: Orientation & Special Events Student Move-In Student Move-Out Meet the Recycling Crew
Collection Bins • Many “generations” of bins and containers used inside buildings
Student Move-In Day ~ 2 tons of corrugated cardboard collected in one day
Student Move-Out Week ~ 5 tons of donated food, clothing and household items in one week
University Partners Residential Life Dining Services Custodial Services Office of Sustainability (Eco-Reps) Environmental Safety Facilities Design & Construction Transportation & Parking Services Business Partners Chittenden Solid Waste District Contracted Waste Hauler (All Cycle Waste) Vendors for Specific Commodities (e-waste, grease, scrap metal, etc) Program Success Due to Many Partners
Measuring the Waste Stream “what gets measured gets managed”
Getting the Data • Weight slips from transfer station for solid waste • Contract requires hauler to weigh University waste separately • Weight slips from MRF for all recyclables • Vendor reports on other commodities (e.g. gallons) • For items that are not weighed separately, use a volume/weight estimate (e.g. appliances) • Annual “weight audit” for food waste/compostables to come up with weekly average.
Davis Center Case Study: Building Design & Operations
The Dudley H. Davis Center 186,000 square feet Completed in August 2007the first LEED-Gold certified student center in the U.S.
Discussions about recycling and trash handling took place years before actual construction.Recycling staff input during conceptual, schematic and final design development stages.
Loading dock area sits below grade, well hidden from street view and pedestrian walkway view. Dock is covered by an 18,000 sq. ft. “green roof” planted with drought-resistant grasses to absorb storm water. Average depth of soil (12-14”) can hold up to 80 lbs per cubic foot including the soil itself, the grasses and storm water/snow. Loading dock below grade Green roof above dock
Radiant tubing under the driveway ramp transfers heat from the hot water system to the concrete surface above to prevent ice formation. This radiant snow melt system reduces the need for salt and chemical de-icing agents in the winter. After Completion – September 2007 During Construction – March 2007
Two 20-cubic yard self contained compactors. One for commingled recycling, the other for trash. These sit under the covered portion of the dock, protected from snow, rain and wind.
Each compactor is fitted with a Perkins® hydraulic cart lifter enabling staff to empty carts without risk of lifting injuries.
Food waste and compostable packaging from the dining areas is collected for composting. These are placed into wheeling carts which are lined with compostable bags (made of “cornstarch” or PLA).
Walk-in cooler at dock which is exclusively used for Food Scraps Composting Collection. The cooler keeps organic waste at a constant temperature – helping reduce odors and pests in warmer months, and preventing frozen carts in winter months.
A cart wash area adjacent to the walk-in cooler features ceramic tile wall, sanitary drain with catch basin for solids, and a high-pressure hose for washing out barrels on a regular basis.
Plenty of space was designed into the dock area for pallets, milk crates, bread racks and reusable shipping boxes- items that are back-hauled by vendors.
Used cooking oil is collected and stored in 45-gallon drums. The drums sit on a spill containment pallet. Emptied by local company – converted into bio-diesel fuel.
Service corridor connects to “back of house” entrances to retail shops, Bookstore and kitchens. Trash, recycling and compost move out of the building away from public pedestrian areas. Double doors in the corridor prevent noise, odors and outside air from entering the building.
Inside the building, recycling and waste is collected from attractive built-in cabinets – which are placed throughout every floor. Square Rubbermaid® Station Containers line the inside of each cabinet.
Marketplace Dish Return Area has built-in cabinets for collecting food scraps & compostable packaging, recycling and trash. Brennan’s Pub uses all reusables and washable dishes (including Mason jars for drinks!)
Moveable trash and recycle stations used on the 4th floor Conference Center of the building, and are rolled into and out of meeting rooms as needed.
Design for Waste Prevention Spouts on drinking fountains easy to refill water bottles.High efficiency hand dryers no paper towel waste in building
Davis Center – Team Effort to Reduce Waste & Be Sustainable • Building occupants were first to use “Mini Bin” for trash. • Sustainability is part of “mission” • Student Life Marketing Director: Earth day, Bottle Free Day • Annual Davis Center Waste Sort • All Occupants Support Recycling and Waste Reduction Goals • Custodial Services –Use of “microfiber” cleaning; reduce plastic liners • Print & Mail Services – scrap paper notepads
How do we change the culture at an institution to emphasize waste prevention (reduce and reuse) when we’ve been emphasizing recycling and composting for decades?
“Rethink” Waste It was “stuff” before it became waste. RECYCLE COMPOST WE PURCHASE STUFF WE USE STUFF WE DISCARD STUFF REUSE
Make Better Decisions “Upstream” In order to reduce the amount of waste on campus- hence the amount we discard- we all need to start making better decisions “up stream” PURCHASE USE DISCARD Waste is affected by all the decisions –both large and small - that are made by many individuals at all levels of an organization everyday.
Rethink: What We Purchase • Institutional Obstacles • Culture of “new & improved” • Decentralized purchasing • It’s real easy to buy “stuff” • Increasing emphasis on food & beverage consumption in all places of our lives (meetings, in classrooms, cars) • Emphasis on convenience “disposables” over reusables • Proliferation of vending machines • Perception that bottled water is “safer” than tap water more bottle waste PURCHASE Do we really need it? What’s it made out of? Lease vs. buy? Is it durable? Reusable? Refillable? How far did it travel to get here? How is it packaged? What quantity do we really need? What’s the ‘true’ cost? Life-cycle costs How will we dispose of it?
Rethink: How We Use Stuff USE • Institutional Obstacles • Culture of replace, rather than repair. • “We don’t own it” • Preventive maintenance sometimes lacking • We are not always good with sharing stuff • How much do we need to use? • Are we maintaining it to extend useful life of product/equipment? • Can we Refill it? Refurbish it? • Are we using it up completely? • Are we sharing stuff with other departments? • Can we borrow from another department? • Can we store leftover materials for later use?
Rethink: How We Discard Stuff DISCARD • Institutional Obstacles • Waste disposal is “free” to all departments • Recycling dept provides tools (i.e., bins) but not all people choose to use them. • Institution is large – one person cannot be the “garbage police” • Is it hazardous? • Is it banned from landfill disposal? • Can it be recycled? • Can it be composted? • Can it be donated? Sold? • How do we collect it? Move it? • Where does it go? • What does it cost to dispose?
“Upstream” Waste Prevention Programs at UVM • Procurement Services arrangement with office supply vendor to make deliveries using reusable corrugated plastic boxes less cardboard • Dining Services “Tray Free” in three residential dining facilities less post-consumer food waste • Telecommunications eliminated printed directory 7 tons phone books eliminated • Custodial Services switch microfiber cleaning rags washable, not disposable