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  1. Agriculture Where did agriculture originate? Where are agricultural regions in less developed countries? Where are agricultural regions in more developed countries? Why does agriculture vary among regions? Why do farmers face economic difficulties? What is the Green Revolution

  2. History of Agriculture • Hunter-Gatherers • Neolithic Revolution • Domestication of Plants and Animals • Diffusion of Agriculture • Agricultural Industrialization • The “Green Revolution” • Hybrids, scientific application of fertilizer, pesticide, and water • Modern Agribusiness • Genetic Engineering of Crops

  3. Key Issue 1: Where did agriculture originate? • Agriculture- the deliberate modification of Earth’s surface through cultivation of plants and rearing of animals to obtain sustenance or economic gain. • Before ag, humans existed through hunting and gathering, meaning the collection of food on a daily basis. About 250,000 people still engage in hunting and gathering; these people live in isolated areas of the Arctic, Africa, Australia, and S. America. • The first form of agriculture • vegetative planting- the reproduction of plants by direct cloning from existing plants, i.e. cutting roots/stems. • seed agriculture- the reproduction of plants through annual planting of seeds that result from sexual fertilization.

  4. History of Agriculture • Hunter-Gatherers • Neolithic Agricultural Revolution- 10000 BC • Increased Carrying Capacity • Started Civilization • Population Boom • • Second Agricultural Revolution • 500 CE(AD) Feudal Society • Open Lot system- Everybody in the Society • Enclosure movement- Capitalist • 16th and 17th Centuries Industrial Revolution in Europe • Higher Technology because of the demand increased output in the farms with better food storage - More food means?? • The “Green Revolution” 1970’s AD • Hybrids, scientific application of fertilizer, pesticide, and water • Modern Agribusiness- Vertical Integration • Genetic Engineering of Crops

  5. Development and Diffusion of Agriculture • Origin • Multiple Hearths- • Carl Sauer (also came up with the built environment)- Started with Vegetative Planting • Later with Seed Agriculture • Independent Innovation- Meso-America, Andean America, West Africa, Nile River, Mesopotamia, Indus River, Ganges Delta, East China

  6. Neolithic Revolution Primary effects: • Urbanization • Social stratification • Occupational specialization • Increased population densities Secondary effects: • Endemic diseases • Famine • Expansionism

  7. Vegetative planting originated in three primary hearths: S.E. Asia, West Africa, and northwest South America. • Seed ag also originated in several primary hearths: west India, north China, Ethiopia, south Mexico, and north Peru. • Subsistence ag- the production of food primarily for consumption by the farmer’s family. • Commercial ag- the production of food primarily for sale off the farm.

  8. Vegetative Planting Hearths There were several main heaths, or centers of origin, for vegetative crops (roots & tubers, etc.), from which the crops diffused to other areas. Carl Sauer suggested that Southeast Asia was a primary hearth.

  9. Seed Agriculture Hearths Seed agriculture also originated in several hearths and diffused from those elsewhere.

  10. World Climate Regions

  11. World Agriculture Regions Locations of the major types of subsistence and commercial agriculture.

  12. Origins of Agriculture Which of these areas are considered cultural hearths?

  13. Five features distinguish commercial ag from subsistence: • Purpose of farming: subsistence ag is to produce food for own consumption. Commercial ag is produced for sale to others. • Percentage of farmers: in MDC’s less than 5% of workers are farmers, compared to 55% in LDC’s. The farmers in MDC’s are typically commercial, whereas the LDC farmers are subsistence. • Use of machinery: Commercial ag makes heavy use of machinery where subsistence ag uses mainly hand tools and animals. • Farm size: Commercial farms are much larger than subsistence farms. The commercial farms have to be larger in order to pay for their heavy machinery, and to make a profit. • Relationship of farming to other business: Commercial farms are commonly part of an • agribusiness- the many facets of food production, not just isolated family farming.

  14. Subsistence Agriculture Regions

  15. Clustered Rural Settlements in England

  16. Clustered Linear Rural Settlements

  17. Clustered Circular Rural Settlements

  18. Key Issue 2: Where are agricultural regions in less developed countries? • The three primary types of ag in LDC’s are: • Shifting cultivation- characterized by slash-and-burn ag- the clearing of land by slashing vegetation and burning debris, and using a select field (swidden) for only a few years before leaving it fallow for many years to recover the soil. • Shifting cultivation is practiced most commonly in the tropics and other regions where soil quality is relatively poor for supporting ag. • grows inefficient as the number of people increases and more fields must be left fallow longer. • Shifting cultivation has been looked down upon in recent years as the importance of the rain forests to the Earth’s ecosystem becomes more apparent.

  19. Shifting Cultivation Vegetation “slashed” and then burned. Soil remains fertile for 2-3 years. Then people move on. • where: tropical rainforests. Amazon, Central and West Africa, Southeast Asia • Crops: upland rice (S.E. Asia), maize and manioc (S. America), millet and sorghum (Africa)‏ Declining at hands of ranching and logging.

  20. Subsistence vs. Commercial Farming • Subsistence- Farming for your own family • Shifting Cultivation • Extensive Subsistence • Slash and Burn • Intertillage • Swidden • Not profitable • Uses a lot of land • Poly Culture- animals and plants • LDC or MDC • Urban Subsistence • Terra Preta Agriculture

  21. Intensive Subsistence Agriculture- cultivate small amount of lands very effectively • Rice- Terrace Farms • Double Cropping • Corn and Wheat

  22. Pastoral Nomadism The breeding and herding of domesticated animals for subsistence. • where: arid and semi-arid areas of N. Africa, Middle East, Central Asia • animals: Camel, Goats, Sheep, Cattle • transhumance: seasonal migrations from highlands to lowlands Most nomads are being pressured into sedentary life as land is used for agriculture or mining. Bedouin Shepherd Somali Nomad and Tent

  23. Intensive subsistence ag- the form of ag used in areas of high density such as East, South, and Southeast Asia. It is characterized by high efficiency farming practices that yield a large number of crops per small amount of land. • The intensive ag in Asia is subdivided into “wet rice dominant” and “wet rice not dominant”. • Aside from the obvious difference in what is grown, the two classifications are quite similar. • They each use the land intensively, primarily using human power with some animal and hand tool assistance. • crop rotation may be practiced, as well as • double cropping- obtaining two harvests from one field in one year.

  24. Intensive Subsistence Agriculture • Wet Rice Dominant • where: S.E. Asia, E. India, S.E. China • very labor intensive production of rice, including transfer to sawah, or paddies • most important source of food in Asia • grown on flat, or terraced land Double cropping is used in warm winter areas of S. China and Taiwan The Fields of Bali Thai Rice Farmers

  25. Key Issue 3: Where are agricultural regions in more developed countries • The methods of farming typically found in MDC’s are: 7 Methods • Mixed crop and livestock farming is common in the U.S. west of the Appalachians and in much of Europe from France to Russia. • integration of crops and livestock. Most of the crops are fed to animals rather than humans. • nearly all of the land is used for crop growing, but more than 75% the profits come from the sale of animal products • Crop rotation is actively used in mixed farming • two of the most frequent are corn and soybeans

  26. Mixed Crop and Livestock Farming Mixed Crop and Livestock Farming Where: Ohio to Dakotas, cantered on Iowa; much of Europe from France to Russia • crops: corn (most common), soybeans • In U.S. 80% of grain production is fed to pigs and cattle! • Highly inefficient use of natural resource • Pounds of grain to make 1 lb. beef: 10 • Gallons of water to make 1 1b wheat: 25 • Gallons of water to make 1 1b. beef: 2500

  27. 2. Dairy farming is the most important type of commercial ag practiced on farms near the northeast U.S., southeast Canada, and northwest Europe. • Dairy farms must be nearer their market areas than other products because their product spoils quickly; • milkshed- the ring surrounding a city from which milk can be supplied without spoiling. • Improvements in transportation have increased the range of dairy farms, but they are mainly still located near large urban areas. Those dairy farms that are farther from the cities tend to sell their product to processors who make butter, cheese, etc, because these products keep longer than milk.

  28. Dairy Farming Where: near urban areas in N.E. United States, Southeast Canada, N.W. Europe - Over 90% of cow’s milk is produced in developed countries. Value is added as cheese, yogurt, etc. Dairy Farm, Wisconsin Von Thunen’s theories are the beginning of location economics and analysis (1826)Locational Theory : butter and cheese more common than milk with increasing distance from cities and in West. Milkshed : historically defined by spoilage threat; refrigerated trucks changed this.

  29. Grain farming is typically done in the Great Plains states of the U.S. • The U.S. is by far the world’s largest producer of grain. • the winter wheat area (the crop is planted in the autumn and develops a strong root system before growth stops for the winter, and is harvested in the early summer) like Oklahoma, Kansas, Colorado; • the spring wheat belt (the crop is planted in spring and harvested in the late summer) in the Dakotas, Montana; • third important area is in the Palouse region of Washington state. Wheat is an important crop because it is highly exportable and is a source of economic and political strength for its largest producers, like the U.S. and Canada.

  30. Prairie Cereal Farming Where: worldwide in semi-arid midlatitudes, but U.S. and Russia predominant Crops: wheat • winter wheat: Kansas, Colorado, Oklahoma • spring wheat: Dakotas, Montana, southern Canada Highly mechanized: combines, worth hundreds of thousands of dollars, migrate northward in U.S., following the harvest.

  31. World Corn Production The U.S. accounts for about 40% of world corn (maize) production. China is the 2nd largest producer. Much of the corn in both countries is used for animal feed.

  32. Livestock ranching is the commercial grazing of livestock over an extensive area. • In MDC’s it is practiced in lands where the vegetation is too sparse and the soil too poor to support crops. • The cattle were taken to market via cattle trails and railways in the 19th century, but more recently by semi-trucks and interstate highways. • Cattle ranching is done in other parts of the world where wide open lands are available, and are better suited to supporting cows than crops. • Regardless of the region, ranching has followed a similar pattern across the globe. Initially it is the herding of cattle over open ranges, then ranching transforms into fixed farming by dividing the open land into ranches. Some ranches are converted into farms as the countryside develops and irrigation is more available. The remaining farms must experiment with new breeding and feeding processes to enhance the value of their cows.

  33. Livestock Ranching Where: arid or semi-arid areas of western U.S., Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay, Spain and Portugal. History: initially open range, now sedentary with transportation changes. Environmental effects: 1) overgrazing has damaged much of the world’s arid grasslands (< 1% of U.S. remain!)‏ 2) destruction of the rainforest is motivated by Brazilian desires for fashionable cattle ranches

  34. 5. Mediterranean ag exists mainly in the lands that border the Mediterranean Sea in S. Europe, N. Africa, and W. Asia. It has spread to parts of California, Chile, South Africa, and Australia as well. • Most of the food grown in this style of farming is for human consumption and is typically of high value. • Horticulture- the growing of fruits, vegetables, and flowers forms the base of Med. ag.

  35. Mediterranean Agriculture Where: areas surrounding the Mediterranean, California, Oregon, Chile, South Africa, Australia Climate has summer dry season. Landscape is mountainous. • Highly valuable crops: olives, grapes, nuts, fruits and vegetables; winter wheat • California: high quality land is being lost to suburbanization; initially offset by irrigation

  36. 6. Commercial Gardening and Fruit Farming is the main farming found in the U.S. southeast. • truck farming- growing many of the fruits and vegetables demanded in more developed societies. • These farms are highly efficient and make use of machinery and cheap labor in every facet of the process.

  37. Commercial Gardening and Fruit Farming Where: U.S. Southeast, New England, near cities around the world • crops: high profit vegetables and fruits demanded by wealthy urban populations: apples, asparagus, cherries, lettuce, tomatoes, etc. • mechanization: such truck farming is highly mechanized and labor costs are further reduced by the use of cheap immigrant (and illegal) labor. • distribution: situated near urban markets.

  38. Developed Countries Undercut Free Markets in Agriculture • Farmers in the developed world are paid an average of 2/3 more than the free market would provide. • These subsidies to the world’s richest farmers directly damage the agricultural economies of the poorest nations. • Despite this, the U.S. Congress and President Bush actually increased farm subsidies in 2002.

  39. 7. Plantation farming is found in the tropics and subtropics. • Plantation- a large farm that specializes in one or two crops, typically cash crops. • These types are farms are isolated in sparsely settled locations and are thus quite self-sufficient. • After the outlawing of slavery in the U.S., many of the plantations were sold or subdivided as the ample source of cheap labor was no longer an option

  40. Plantation Farming • large scale mono-cropping of profitable products not able to be grown in Europe or U.S. • where: tropical lowland Periphery • crops: cotton, sugar cane, coffee, rubber, cocoa, bananas, tea, coconuts, palm oil. What are potential problems with this type of agriculture? Environmental? Social?

  41. Labor Force in Agriculture A large proportion of workers in most LDCs are in agriculture, while only a small percentage of workers in MDCs are engaged in agriculture.

  42. Tractors, per cropland Tractors per 1000 hectares of cropland. Use of machinery is extensive in most MDC agriculture, but it is much less common in LDCs.

  43. World Corn Production The U.S. accounts for about 40% of world corn (maize) production. China is the 2nd largest producer. Much of the corn in both countries is used for animal feed.

  44. World Milk Production Milk production reflects wealth, culture, and environment. It is usually high in MDCs, especially production per capita, and varies considerably in LDCs.

  45. Milk Production in MDCs & LDCs1960-2005 Milk production has grown more rapidly in LDCs than in MDCs since the 1960s.

  46. World Wheat Production China is the world’s leading wheat producer, but the U.S. is the largest producer of wheat for sale and the largest exporter.

  47. Meat Production Cattle, sheep and goats are the main meat animals raised on ranches.