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Europe

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Europe

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  1. Europe Figure 4.1

  2. Be able to locate on Europe map: • United Kingdom • Republic of Ireland • Portugal • Spain • France • Germany • Italy • Poland • Norway • Sweden • Finland • Iceland • Latvia • Switzerland • Romania • Greece

  3. Population Distribution Figure 4.11

  4. WWII (1939 – 1945) shaped modern Europe and motivated EU Caen, France after liberation by Canadian Troops, August 1944 Liberation of Auschwitz by Red Army Troops, January 1945

  5. Horrors of the Nazi Holocaust

  6. WWII damage – London, England

  7. WWII damage – Berlin, Germany

  8. WWII damage – Dresden, Germany

  9. WWII damage – Warsaw, Poland

  10. Nazi Holocaust and Genocide(s)

  11. Country WWII Deaths WWII Casualties * 10 million more deaths due to war-related famine ** 1.5 – 3 million deaths due to war-related famine

  12. Post-WWII Europe/Iron Curtain

  13. Berlin Holocaust Memorial

  14. A. Economic and Political Issues • European Economic Community (EEC): founded in 1958 • Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg, France, Italy, West Germany • Eliminated tariffs and promoted trade • European Union (EU): created from EEC in 1992 • New role: competitor and counterweight for the United States

  15. EU Headquarters in Brussels, Belgium Figure 4.15 • Jan Ritz/Getty Images/Nordic Photos

  16. A. Economic and Political Issues • Economic and Social Integrative Role of the European Union • Allows smaller countries to achieve economies of scale due to higher production for larger market • About 489 million people comprise the EU; combined exports are 19 % of the world’s total • Promotes the equitable distribution of economic activity, opportunity, human well-being, and environmental quality • Through taxes, and distribution of grants to poorer countries economies of scale—reductions in the unit costs of production that occur when goods or services are produced in large amounts, resulting in a rise in profits per unit

  17. A. Economic and Political Issues • Common European Currency • Euro (€) – official currency of 13 EU members • UK, Denmark, Sweden all voted not to use it • New members pledged to switch to Euro, beginning in 2008 • Eliminates currency exchange fees • Eliminates currency fluctuations that impact trade within the EU

  18. The EU Economy Figure 4.16

  19. Human Well-being Rankings

  20. European Women in Politics Figure 4.31

  21. Transfers of Wealth from Colonialism Figure 4.8

  22. Population Patterns • Modern Urbanization in Europe • High urbanization: From 72% in North Europe to 62% in Central Europe • Medieval central cities, with apartment blocks in concentric circles outside • High density: excellent public transportation, few detached houses • High quality of life in large cities; relatively few slums • Population: London: 12 million, Paris: 9.9 million, Madrid: 5.6 million, Berlin: 2.3 million

  23. Central city

  24. Population Patterns • Europe’s Aging Population • Death rates higher than birth rates • One-child family increasingly common • Women making pro-career choices • Increasing pro-natalist policies at EU and other levels • Without more population: • Markets will contract • Lack of workers • Lack of tax income • Reluctance for large-scale immigration

  25. 2005 Population Pyramid, Germany

  26. Ireland CIA World Factbook website http://wwp.greenwichmeantime.com/images/europe/united-kingdom.jpg

  27. Irish potato famine 1845 – 1850 • Fungus decimated potato crop • Trevelyan • In 1840 he became Assistant Secretary to the Treasury in London and held that office until 1859. This position put him in charge of the administration of Government relief to the victims of the Irish Famine in the 1840s. • Believing in market capitalism, Trevelyan declined shipments of corn sent to Ireland to feed starving populace • In the middle of that crisis Trevelyan published his views on the matter. He saw the Famine as a ‘mechanism for reducing surplus population’. • He wrote, ‘The judgment of God sent the calamity to teach the Irish a lesson, that calamity must not be too much mitigated. …The real evil with which we have to contend is not the physical evil of the Famine, but the moral evil of the selfish, perverse and turbulent character of the people’. http://multitext.ucc.ie/d/Charles_Edward_Trevelyan

  28. Northern Ireland In 1922, the Republic of Ireland became independent Northern Ireland remained part of the United Kingdom 2001 Northern Ireland population http://www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nugget.asp?id=980

  29. Irish Political/Historical Folk Songs • Craigie Hill – Cara Dillon • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V-oquRLcmAM&feature=related • Fields of Athen Rye • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oqdN0F8mWCk

  30. Europe’s wealthy landscapes/cityscapes • Standard of living • Tourism • Culture

  31. Murano Glass Blowing

  32. Murano Glass

  33. Photo by Christine Olsson Photo by Christine Olsson Photo by Christine Olsson Photo by Christine Olsson

  34. Photo by Christine Olsson

  35. Photo by Christine Olsson

  36. Old Town