Sentence Types Understanding types of sentences and sentence structures
There are four types of sentences • The most common type of sentence is the DECLARATIVE sentence. • A declarative sentence “declares” or states something. • To declare: أعلن • 聲明 • declarar
Examples: • I am hungry. • Class starts at 6:00 pm. • Summer ends next month. • The days are getting shorter.
Imperative Sentences • Imperative sentences give a command – tell someone to do something. • Often times, imperative sentences do not have a stated subject, but the subject is implied to be “you”. • Imperative: imperativo • 迫切 • إلزامي
Examples of Imperative Sentences • Close the door. • Get ready for school. • Pass me the pepper. • Each of these examples have “you” for the subject.
Analyzing the imperative sentence: • What is the subject and the verb of the following sentence? • “Don’t forget to take out the garbage tonight.” • ---Remember negatives are adverbs. We are left with “do” and “forget” as the verbs. • ---The subject is the implied “you” . . . . . . . so
Finishing up . . • (You) don’t forget to take out the garbage.
Interrogatory Sentences • Interrogatory sentences is another way of saying a sentence that asks a question. • They will always be followed by a question mark: • Examples: • Did you do the homework? • Are you going to make dinner tonight? • Did you enjoy the movie?
Finding the subject and verb • To find the subject and verb of a question, restate the sentence as a declarative sentence: • Did you do the homework? = Youdid do the homework. • Are you going to make dinner tonight? = • You are going to made dinner tonight. • Did you enjoy the movie? = You did enjoy the movie.
Exclamatory Sentences • An exclamatory sentence adds emphasis or emotion to either a declaratory or imperative sentence. • It will always be followed by an exclamation point (!) • Examples: • Don’t go in the kitchen! I just washed the floor. • Watch out! • I got an A on my test!
Sentence Structure • Sentence structure is divided into four types: • Simple sentences • Compound sentences • Complex Sentences • Compound/Complex Sentences
What is a sentence? • A sentence will always: • 1) Start with a capital letter • 2) Have a subject • 3) Have a verb • 4) Have a complete idea • 5) End with a period (.), a question mark (?), or an exclamation point (!)
Which of these is not a sentence? • We are going to get rain on Saturday. • Stop! • Because traffic was heavy. • Why were you so late?
The answer is . . . • “Because traffic was so heavy.” • It starts with a capital letter • It has a subject (traffic) • It has a verb (was) • It ends in a period • BUT - - - it doesn’t have a complete thought or idea. Because traffic was so heavy . . . What? I was late? I drove a different way? I decided not to go?
Dependent and Independent Clauses • An INDEPENDENT clause is another word for a complete sentence. It is independent, or free, of anything else. It has a completed idea. • Clause: جملة • Cláusula • 條款
Dependent Clauses • A DEPENDENT clause do not complete an idea. You can recognize it because it starts with a dependent word. • Examples of Dependent words: • Because • While • During • Although • Since
Notice how there is no complete idea or thought: • Because I had already taken that class. • Since it was only four o’clock. • While the baby was sleeping. • If I only had more money.
Fragments Dependent clauses are considered to be fragments. A fragment is something that is not complete. Do you understand the difference between dependent and independent clauses?
Simple sentences • A simple sentence is a single independent clause. It has one idea. • Examples: • 1) Mario and Sam drove to New York City. • 2) I wish it would rain. • 3) My garden needs to be watered. • 4) Sarah studied and wrote her paper. • 5) Mo and Sam sanded and painted the cabinets.
Compound Sentences • Compound sentences are two (or more) independent clauses joined by a conjunction or semicolon. • Example: • Simple sentences: Mary cooked dinner. Mike did the dishes. • Compound: Mary cooked dinner, and Mike did the dishes. OR • Mary cooked dinner; Mike did the dishes.
Comma usage • When you connect two independent clauses together with a conjunction, put a comma before the conjunction. • It was raining, and I forgot to close the windows.
Your turn • Let’s practice compound sentences.
Complex Sentences • A COMPLEX sentence contains • One Independent Clause, and • At least one Dependent Clause • EXAMPLES: • If I had more money, I would take a vacation. • Because I was running late, I skipped dinner.
Comma Usage • NOTICE: • When a sentence starts with a dependent clause, you use a comma to separate it from the independent clause. • When a sentence starts with an independent clause, you DON’T use a comma to separate . • Because it was raining, I arrived late for work. • I arrived late for work because it was raining.
Your turn • Let’s practice some complex sentences:
Compound/Complex Sentences • These will contain at least: • Two independent clauses • At least one dependent clause • Example: • I drove to school because it was raining, and I couldn’t find a parking spot.