The Dawning of Inevitability By Emma, Jessie, Ben, and Gabri The Election of 1864, Sherman’s March, Lincoln’s Second Inaugural, and the Surrender at Appomattox
Lincoln’s belief The Election of 1864 might not have happened without Lincoln. One of the most interesting parts of the election is that it happened at all. “We can not have free government without elections; and if the rebellion could force us to forego; or postpone a nation election, it might fairly claim to have already conquered and ruined us.”
Lincoln’s Campaign Slogan • “Don’t trade horses in midstream.” • Changing presidents in the midst of the Civil War will bring certain complications.
Election Background • No president had been awarded a second term since Andrew Jackson, 31 years before. • To both the Republicans and the Democrats, the border states were crucial. • The Republican party, for most part, identified as “Unionists.”
General George B. McClellan • Former Union general. • At first thought to be the “savior” for the Union. • Was not aggressive enough for Lincoln’s, or the Union’s, tastes. • After the Battle of Antietam, he was replaced with Ambrose E. Burnside.
More McClellan • Remained popular with his men. • Though strongly pro-Union, he was urged by his party to take a peace stance in the election, to end the war by negotiation. • To balance his ticket, the Democrats elected George H. Pendleton as his running mate.
Hannibal Hamlin • Like Lincoln, believed that slavery should not expand. • Hamlin was used to balance the ticket in 1860. • Soon became associated with the Radical Republicans. • Replaced with Andrew Johnson in 1864.
Andrew Johnson • Was born and raised in the South. • Southern Unionist, hailed as a patriot in the North. • As military governor of Tennessee after it was captured, he eradicated all Confederate influence.
Vice President Johnson • Lincoln, wishing for a pro-war ticket on the Union party, supports Andrew Johnson instead of Hannibal Hamlin. • After Lincoln’s death, Johnson is propelled into the Presidential office, starting Reconstruction.
Military Influence • After 1863, the war became in favor of the North. • However, early in 1864 Jubal Early had threatened Washington, raiding Maryland. • By September 2nd, Atlanta had fallen to Sherman’s army.
Soldier Vote • General Grant authorized his men to go home and vote. • The strategy in 1864 was to get as many of Lincoln’s followers to the poll as possible. • Even though the soldiers only counted for 4% of vote cast, it shows the support of the army for the war.
Election Results • Lincoln wins 212 electoral votes. • McClellan wins 12 electoral votes, from Kentucky, Delaware, and New Jersey. • Lincoln wins 55% of the popular vote, while McClellan wins 45%. • No votes from the South • States added since 1860: Kansas, Nevada, West Virginia
General Sherman • William Tecumseh Sherman had a passionate belief in preserving the Union and joined the Union army. • General Sherman was sent home at the beginning of the war because he was thought to be insane for thinking the war would last years instead of months.
Sherman’s Tactics • Break morale, not bodies. • Try to avoid as many civilian deaths as possible. • Burn government buildings, crops, railroads, houses, and anything important to the Confederate war effort. • Destroy the Southerners’ ability to function.
General Sherman’s March • General Johnson believed that if he could delay the capture of Atlanta Lincoln wouldn’t be reelected. • Deprived the South of a major line of supplies • Sherman hoped Atlanta would split the Confederacy into North and South
General Sherman’s March • Sherman commanded the Army of Tennessee and the Military Division of the Mississippi. • He conquered Atlanta and Savannah while marching to the sea through Georgia then burned them to the ground. • In his March to The Sea starting in Atlanta Sherman marched his army 60 miles wide and destroying everything in his path. • His idea was to lower the morale of the southerners and show them who won the war through property destruction.
March To The Sea Order Sherman gave the order for the march on November 9 1864: “For the purpose of military operations, this army is divided into two wings viz: The right wing, Major-General O. O. Howard commanding, composed of the Fifteenth and Seventeenth Corps; the left wing, Major-General H. W. Slocum commanding, composed of the Fourteenth and Twentieth Corps.” “March to the Sea” Order (excerpt) (1864)
Growing Southern Desperation • Both General Grant and General Sherman were defeating their respective armies. • Sherman was destroying their cities in the deep South, and wouldn’t stop. • The Southern ability to live was severely compromised by property destruction.
Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address • Was on March 4, 1865. • Not nearly as long as first. • Sherman’s March was complete. • War was close to an end. • Focuses on different beliefs than his first.
Key Points of Speech • Lincoln does admit that the end of the war is near, but not to make rash predictions. • Lincoln then focuses on his sorrow, of all the damage done by the war. • He finally ends with a plea for peace after the war between the sections, and a successful Reconstruction.
Opening Statements • Speaks very little of the recent military victories. • Predictions are worthless in this war. • Reminds all that both “dreaded” and “sought to avert” the war. • One side wants to split by negotiation, others want to fight.
Slavery • Only briefly touches on the slaves- only “somehow the cause of the war.” • Reminds the South that he never intended to remove slavery from where it already stood.
God and War • Accepts that both pray to the same God. • Each use God against each other, but neither of the prayers can be fully answered. • God has his own purposes- however, they are all right and just. • If God wishes for the enslaved to be fully avenged, let it happen.
Plea to North and South • Lincoln first speaks to the North, pushing them to finish their work. • Once North and South are together again, they must not be enemies. • Together, they must clean up the country, and have it become as great as it can be.
Lee’s Surrender at Appomattox • Ended the Civil War. • Whole campaign began on March 29, 1865. • Lasted until April 9, 1865. • Robert E. Lee, the head of the Confederate army. • General Ulysses S. Grant, the head of the Union Army. • Appomattox Court House.
Robert E. Lee • Was a general of the Confederates. • One to surrender at the Appomattox court house to General Ulysses S. Grant. • Was from Virginia and lead the Confederate army of Virginia.
General Ulysses S. Grant • Was a general of the Union. • Lead the Army of the Potomac. • Robert E. Lee surrendered to him.
7 Main Battles • Five Forks. • Namozine Church. • Amelia Court House. • Jetersville. • Sayler’s Creek. • High Bridge. • Appomattox Court House.
Five Forks • Began on April 1 1865. • Confederates lost. • Ended the siege of Petersburg and started the last few days of the war in Northern Virginia. • The defeat of the Confederates made Petersburg and Richmond belong to the federal forces.
Appomattox • Confederates, decisively beaten by the Union, flee Petersburg. • The Union takes over the rail line, and stops the flow of supplies to the Confederacy. • Out of options, and supplies, Lee agrees to surrender. • Lee surrendered on April 9, 1865
Terms of the Surrender • All former Confederate soldiers pledge to not bring arms against the Union. • All government owned guns, cannons, and other weapons are to be turned over to the Union. • However, privately owned horses and weapons can go home with their owners.
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