William Jefferson ClintonMajor Issues/Events in Foreign Policy1993-2000
Background • 42nd President born in 1946 • Former Arkansas Governor • Rhodes Scholar-Studied at Oxford • Law degree from Yale • Undergrad from Georgetown • Left Presidency with highest end of term approval rating in half a century. • Controversial figure
1992 Election • The players: • Democrats: William Jefferson Clinton • Republicans: George H.W. Bush • The spoiler: Ross Perot
The issues • Bush is the incumbent • The economy was troubled (“It’s the economy stupid.”) and perceived to be worse than it actually was • The Cold War was basically over, so the Republicans could no longer ask, “Do you trust the Democrats to stand up to the Russians?” • Perot ran on 1 issue: deficit reduction • Challenged the 2-Party system • Clinton’s image of youth and change
Voter turnout • 55.2% of eligible voters participated • Popular vote: • 43.3% Clinton • 37.7% Bush • 19.0% Perot
1996 Election • The Candidates: • Bill Clinton: Democrat • Bob Dole: Republican • Ross Perot: Reform • Once again challenged the 2-Party system, but a weaker challenge this time
The issues • The economy had basically recovered • The world stage was relatively stable • Campaign donations controversy
1993 • June: A missile attack is launched against Iraqi intelligence headquarters in Baghdad in retaliation for an alleged Iraqi plot to assassinate former President George Bush
1993 • Sept: Clinton hosts a ceremony where Yitzhak Rabin and Yasser Arafat sign accords providing initial steps toward Palestinian self-rule.
Somalia 1993 • Oct: Clinton orders military reinforcements to Somalia after an attack on UN peace keeping forces leaves 18 US servicemen dead. US forces are withdrawn from Somalia over the next 6 months.
1993 • Dec: NAFTA: lowered tariffs and other trade restrictions between the US, Canada and Mexico over 15 years. • Created the worlds largest free trade zone. • Since passage, 400,000 manufacturing jobs created
1994 • Feb: Lifting of Vietnamese trade embargo • April: Rwandan Civil War • US does nothing (not another Somalia)
1994 • Sept: Clinton orders the military leaders of Haiti to step down in favor of ousted President Jean-Batiste Aristide or face UN invasion • Oct: Clinton attends a ceremony to witness the signing of agreements between Israel and Jordan • GATT (General agreement on tariffs and trade) (WTO) ratified, creating a “freer, fairer, and more effective global trading system”
1995 • January: Clinton issues $20 billion in emergency loans to Mexico to stabilize their financial markets. This and loans from the IMF, stopped the collapse of the Peso, prevented financial crisis, and helped the country return to solid economic growth. Mexico repaid the loans with interest. • July: Clinton normalizes relations between the US and Vietnam (20 years after the fall of Saigon)
Bosnia • War came about as a result of the breakup of Yugoslavia in 89. • 12 month mission to enforce peace between Bosnian Muslims who want to form their own country and the Serbian government that opposes them. The question: civil war or war of aggression?
Bosnia continued • 12/95 Dayton (OH) Peace accords: • Agreement between Bosnia, Croatia, and Serbia ending conflict
1998 • March: Clinton tours Africa to show support of democracy in Africa • April: Brokers agreement in Ireland • Aug: Orders launch of cruise missiles at targets in Sudan and Afghanistan in response to imminent terrorist threats of OBL’s network. • US embassies in Kenya and Tanzania were attacked earlier in the month.
1998 • October: Clinton, Arafat and Netanyahu sign the Wye River Memorandum (MD) • Withdrawal of Israeli forces from parts of West Bank, strengthened Israeli security and enhanced opportunities for the Israeli and Palestinian people
1998 • Dec: Global Warming Protocol, Kyoto Japan • First time major nations committed to cutting greenhouse gases. • Dec: air attacks on Iraq’s nuclear, chemical and biological programs. Saddam Hussein announced that he would no longer cooperate with UN inspectors.
Kosovo 2/99 • 4,000 US troops to participate in a NATO mission in Kosovo involving 19 nations • 3/99: NATO airstrikes against Yugoslavia. Lasts 79 days and expelled Serb forces from Kosovo and restored self-government • End Slobodan Milosevic’s ethnic cleansing
Kosovo– Known Mass Graves • In 2001, the bodies of more than 800 Kosovo Albanians were found in pits on a police training ground • 700 bodies were uncovered in a mass grave located in Batajnica • 77 bodies were found in an eastern Serbian town • In 2010, 250 bodies in a pond at a quarry • Total: ~1870 bodies
Kosovo Conclusion • June 99: Clinton agrees with Yugoslavia for a peace keeping force in Kosovo • Still administered by the UN • Milosevic resigned 9/2000 and tried for war crimes • No verdict: dies in prison in 2006
2000 • Oct: China-PNTR (permanent normal trade relations) enacted, opening China’s markets to American manufactured goods, farm products and services by allowing China to become part of the WTO. • Nov: Clinton visits Vietnam, first President to do so since 1969
Overall impact • After 8 years of the Clinton administration, what do you think was the overall impact? • Positive/Negative? Why?