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  1. MCAS Review Mrs. McCarthy’s Middle School Science Review

  2. Grade 8 MCAS Physical Science Earth Science Life Science Technology/Engineering

  3. Test Set-up • 2 Testing Days • Wednesday May 20th • Thursday May 21st • About 47 Total Questions • 41 Multiple Choice Questions • 6 Open Response Questions

  4. Open Response • Multi-part open response questions are included on your MCAS. • You will need to answer ALL of the questions asked. • Be sure to: • Pre-write / Plan / Graphic Organizer • Include Vocabulary Words & Definitions • Explain Thoroughly • Give Examples • Include Labels • Create Diagrams

  5. Physical Science • 8th Grade Curriculum • Properties of Matter • The Atom • Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures • Motion • Forms of Energy & Heat

  6. Properties of Matter • Particle Motion & Phase Changes (15) • Mass vs. Weight (1) • Volume vs. Mass; Density (2) • Measuring Tools (3) • Conservation of Mass (4) • Melting Point & Boiling Point (9) • Physical & Chemical Changes (10)

  7. Solid • Has a definite shape and a definite volume • Particles are held tightly in place and vibrate in place Looks Like

  8. Liquid • Have a definite volume and no definite shape • Take the shape of a container • Can Pour • Particles slide past one another Looks Like

  9. Gas • Have NO Definite Shape or Volume • Fill their containers • Particles spread out and move independently Looks Like

  10. Plasma • Very high in energy • Plasma has no definite shape or volume • Particles are broken • Plasma is the most common phase of matter in the universe • Examples: Auroras, lightning, fire, neon lights

  11. Charles’ Law • The volume of a gas increases as its temperature increases • For Example: • A balloon expands and pops when it is heated. • A balloon contracts and gets smaller when it is cooled.

  12. Boyle’s Law • The volume of gas increases as the pressure decreases • Example: Piston • Lifting the Plunger Decreases the Pressure • Pushing the Plunger Increases the Pressure

  13. States of Matter Matter changes phases due to a change in the heat energy of an object’s particles. Add Energy/Heat  Lose Energy/Heat ←

  14. Measurement • Mass • Weight • Volume • Temperature

  15. Mass • The amount of matter in an object • Doesn’t change with gravity • Measured with a triple-beam balance • SI unit of grams

  16. Inertia • A resistance to a change in motion • The more mass an object has, the more inertia it has • Example: Grocery Carts & Cars

  17. Weight • The amount of gravitational pull on an object • Changes with gravity • Measured in Newtons

  18. Volume • The amount of space an object takes-up • Can be measured with a ruler using the formula: Volume = length * width * height

  19. OR • Volume can be measured with water and a graduated cylinder using displacement • Solid SI Unit of cm³ • Liquid SI Unit of mL

  20. Density • The amount of mass in a given volume • Measured with the Formula: Density = Mass / Volume * Labeled in g/cm³ Mass ______________ Density * Volume

  21. Density Stackers • Many liquid mixtures will stack up into layers by their densities • More dense materials will be below less dense materials • Example: Salad Dressing

  22. Characteristic Properties • Describe substances based upon their characteristics • Example: Physical Properties Chemical Properties

  23. Physical Properties • Physically describe an object based upon observable and measurable observations Examples: COLOR Density Solubility Mass Malleability Texture Volume Temperature State Weight Ductility Melting Boiling

  24. Melting Point & Boiling Point • Each Substance has its own Melting & Boiling Points that are always the same temperature regardless of the size

  25. Particle Motion & Temperature Increases • Melting- the change from a solid to a liquid • Adding energy • Boiling- the change from a liquid to a gas • Adding Energy

  26. Melting Point: All Water Melts at 0˚C Boiling Point: All water boils at 100˚C Melting & Boiling Points

  27. Physical Changes • A change in a substance that affects one or more physical properties of a substance • The substance does not change • Examples: Cutting Hair Crushing a Can Sanding Wood Broken Glass Melting Butter Freezing Water Dissolving Salt Bending Metal

  28. Chemical Properties • Describe substances based upon their ability to change into a new substance with different properties • Chemical properties are not easily observed with your senses and often need to be tested • Examples: Reactivity: Tarnishing, Rusting, Flammability

  29. Chemical Changes • When substances change into new substances with different properties • Examples: Gas Formation & Bubbles Burning Cooking Reactivity

  30. Conservation of Mass • Mass cannot be created or destroyed • Even during a chemical reaction, the mass will remain the same. • Example- Lab with: Vinegar, Baking Soda, Baggies, Film Canister, & T.B.B. Before After

  31. Elements, Compounds, & Mixtures • There are more than 100 elements on the periodic table that make up ALL things (5) • Atoms of Elements vs. Molecules of Compound (6) • Examples of Elements and Compounds (7) • Mixtures vs. Pure Substances (8)

  32. Atomic Theory • Democritus- Proposes the Atom 440 B.C. • Dalton- Atoms are the Smallest Particle • Thomson- “Plum Pudding” with Electrons • Rutherford- Gold Foil → Atom’s Nucleus • Bohr- Electrons Travel in Energy Paths • Schrödinger & Heisenberg- Electron Clouds

  33. Atom • The Smallest Unit of an Element • Everything is made of Atoms Energy Levels Nucleus with Protons and Neutrons Electrons

  34. Protons • Charge: Positive • Mass:1 amu • Location: Nucleus • Proton count determines the element • Protons = atomic number

  35. Neutrons Charge: none Mass: 1 amu Location: Nucleus *To find the neutrons: atomic mass – atomic number

  36. Electrons • Charge: Negative • Mass: Almost Zero • Location: Electron Clouds • Balanced Atoms: Protons = Electrons

  37. Periodic Table • Organized Data of Elements • Organized by Atomic Number • Over 100 Elements • Contains Many Patterns • Element Cube: 2 Atomic Number He Chemical Symbol Helium Element Name 4.0 Atomic Mass

  38. Pure Substances • A substance with only one type of particle • Examples: Elements & Compounds • Pure Substances Cannot be Broken Down and Retain their Properties

  39. Elements Left of zigzag line Right of zigzag line Border the zigzag line

  40. Mixtures • A combination of two or more substances that are not chemically combined. • A mixture is easily separated by physical means • A mixture is NOT a pure substance.

  41. Separating Mixtures Techniques: • Magnet: uses a magnet • Filter: uses a sifter • Centrifuge: uses spinning (densities) • Solutions: uses dissolving • Distillation: uses boiling point

  42. Chemical Reactions • The process where one or more substances changes to become one or more different substances. • LAW OF CONSERVATION OF MASS • Mass is never gained or lost in a chemical reaction

  43. Clues to Chemical Reactions • Gas Formation • Solid Formation • Color Change • Energy Change

  44. Chemical Formulas & Equations • A chemical formula uses symbols and numbers to represent a compound • Chemical Equations uses formulas and symbols to show a chemical reaction • Chemical Equations MUST be Balanced and follow the Law of Conservation of Mass Example: C + O2 CO2

  45. Motion of Objects • Motion is described by Position, Direction, & Speed • Graphs of Distance vs. Time (S= D/T)

  46. Motion Motion A change in an object’s position relative to reference point(s) during a specific length of time

  47. Distance Speed = Time Distance Speed * Time

  48. Velocity Speed an object travels in a given direction The unit label is ALWAYS a: Distance/Time & Direction Word Example: 60 miles/hour West Example Direction Words: North, South, East, West, Left, Right, Up, Down

  49. Force • A push or a pull • Exerted on one object • by another object • Can affect an object’s • speed or direction

  50. Unbalanced forces If the net force on an object is NOT ZERO. The resulting effect is the object changes its motion.