Adaptation Survival of the Fittest
It’s all about traits • Acquired Traits Happen After Birth Scars Pierced Ears Learning a Skill Changing Appearance
It’s all about traits • Inherited Traits Programmed at Birth skin eye hair color height face shape sight, taste, smell
An ADAPTATION is an inherited trait that helps an organism survive • For it to be an adaptation, most members of the population must have the same trait • Adaptations can be physical or behavioral Make a Concept Map as we go… • Draw a large circle in the center of your page and write ADAPTATION in the center. Write the definition of adaptation under the word. When words appear in orange, write them down.
Physical Adaptation (make an arm off the center and label it PHYSICAL ADAPTATION) • How an Organism LOOKS or its structure (write this on the other side of the physical adaptation line) Example: Camouflage (write this as a finger off of the physical arm) Body coloring that helps an organism blend in with its surroundings is called camouflage. This leaf insect is protected from predators eating it because it lives on trees and blends in with the leaves.
Physical Adaptation • How an Organism LOOKS or its structure Example: Camouflage Body coloring that helps an organism blend in with its surroundings is called camouflage. The camouflage of this crab spider is an adaptation that lets it blend in with flower petals – until lunch flies by…
Physical Adaptation • How an Organism LOOKS or its structure Example: Mimicry Some organisms look like other organisms that are poisonous or dangerous. They are protected because of the way they look. Tasty Viceeroy butterfly on the left, poisonous Monarch butterfly on the right. The Viceroy is protected by mimicing the color of the Monarch. Bee story.
Physical Adaptation • How an Organism LOOKS or its structure Example: Specialized Structures Some organisms have adapted special body parts that make them well suited to their environment. These African elephants live in a hot climate. Large ears help dissipate the heat by bringing blood close to the skin surface. What other adaptations do elephants have?
Physical Adaptation • How an Organism LOOKS or its structure Example: Flight adaptations All birds have hollow bones and feathers. This allows most members of the bird family to fly. Humans and other mammals have marrow inside their bones. Bird bones are hollow. How would hollow bones help a bird to fly?
Physical Adaptation • How an Organism LOOKS or its structure Example: Swimming adaptations Fish have adapted to marine life by having scales and using fins to move. This catfish has many fins that allow it to glide through the muddy river bottoms. What other adaptation is unique to catfish?
Behavioral Adaptation Draw another arm out from the center and label it.) • What an organism DOES (write this on the other side of the arm) Some traits are passed down as instincts or behaviors. These behaviors help the organism survive.
Behavioral Adaptation Example: Hunting and stalking (write examples as fingers) Hunting behavior is coded in an animal’s genes. It is an instinct. This tiger is stalking prey. This behavioral adaptation helps it get food, and ensures that the species will survive.
Behavioral Adaptation Example: Hibernating Hibernating conserves an organism’s energy resources and helps it survive when food is scarce. Mammals aren’t the only ones that have adapted to cold weather by hibernating. Turtles, frogs, and some snakes share the same trait.
Behavioral Adaptation Example: Mating Behavior Many animals have adapted mating behavior to ensure that the strongest males pass on their genes. These bull elk are battling to determine which one is the strongest. The winner gets to mate with all of the cow elk.
Natural Selection (make an arm) • The organisms that are best suited to the environment will live and be able to pass on their genes by reproducing. • Organisms that are not well suited to the environment will die before they can reproduce. • “Survival of the Fittest” (write under arm)
Natural Selection • Remember the Peppered Moth? Listen to the story of the peppered moth and write a finger.
Speciation(make a new arm) • When a group of organisms are isolated in a new environment, the traits that are best suited to that new environment will be passed on. • After MANY generations, a whole new species may be formed.
Speciation • Example: Snowshoe Hares and Jackrabbits Both descended from a common ancestor Live in very different environments
Charles Darwin (make a new arm) • Was a Brittish “naturalist” • Wrote 19 books in his lifetime • Studied science by observing the natural world • 1809-1882 • Buried in Westminster Abbey
Charles Darwin (make a new arm) • Charles Darwin sailed on a ship named the Beagle. • It may have been the defining experience of his life. • It may have also ruined his health. • A poisonous bug bite caused chronic illness: ulcer, diverticulitis and gall bladder disease. • He studied marine life and flora and fauna of South America for the five year trip.
Charles Darwin • Darwin’s theory stated that the diversity of organisms on earth is the result of billions of years of adaptations to changing environments.(under arm) • He didn’t coin the phrase “survival of the fittest”. • He did develop the idea of natural selection.
Charles Darwin • Most famous for his discoveries on the Galapagos Islands. • Near the end of his discovery tour • Western tip of S.A. near Ecuador
Charles Darwin • Studied many plants and animals. • Famous for making detailed observations and measurements of finches. Size, color, habitat, beaks.
Charles Darwin • Also studied Blue Footed Boobies • These unique animals were not found anywhere in Europe • Discovery Mini-Video