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SOIL SUBORDERS

SOIL SUBORDERS

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SOIL SUBORDERS

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  1. SOIL SUBORDERS • Mollisols • Alfisols • Inceptisols • Entisols Example of an Udipsamment, which is an Entisol– A young poorly developed soil in a sandy glacial outwash plain.

  2. Soil Suborders • Mollisols- grassland soils with high base status • Albolls, Aquolls, Rendolls, Gelolls, Cryolls, Xerolls, Ustolls, andUdolls. • Alfisols - moderately leached soils with a subsurface zone of clay accumulation and >35% base saturation • Aqualfs, Cryalfs, Udalfs, Ustalfs, and Xeralfs. • Inceptisols- soils with weakly developed subsurface horizons • Aquepts, Anthrepts, Gelepts, Cryepts, Ustepts, Xerepts, and Udepts. • Entisols - soils with little or no morphological development • Wassents, Aquents, Arents, Psamments, Fluvents, andOrthents.

  3. Mollisols • Grassland soils with high base status • Albolls - wet Mollisols with a light- colored horizon formed through Fe reduction • Aquolls - Mollisols with a water table at or near the surface for much of the year • Rendolls - shallow Mollisols over calcareous parent material • Gelolls - Mollisols of very cold cimates (mean annual soil temperature <0°C) • Cryolls - Mollisols of cold climates • Xerolls - temperate Mollisols with very dry summers and moist winters • Ustolls - Mollisols of semiarid and subhumid climates • Udolls - Mollisols of humid climates

  4. Mollisol Diagram

  5. Mollisol Suborder Distribution

  6. Example: Rendoll • Southeastern Minnesota • Shallow soil • Very dark A horizons overlying calcareous sedimentary PM • Humid Regions: Mean annual precipitation is approximately 35 inches. • Highly calcareous parent material • Not extensive in the US.

  7. Alfisols • Moderately leached soils with a subsurface zone of clay accumulation and >35% base saturation • Aqualfs - Alfisols with a water table at or near the surface for much of the year • Cryalfs - Alfisols of cold climates • Ustalfs - Alfisols of semiarid and subhumid climates • Xeralfs - temperate Alfisols with very dry summers and moist winters • Udalfs - Alfisols of humid climates

  8. Alfisol Diagram

  9. Alfisol Suborder Distribution

  10. Example: Aqualf • MollicAlbaqualf • Central Missouri • Parent Material: loess with clay contents of 16% in the Ap horizon to 59% in the Bt horizon. • Abrupt increase in clay across the E-Bt horizon boundary. • Relatively fertile soils because of the high base saturation. • Clay-rich subsoil causes saturation during winter and spring problems for their use and management. • Used for corn, soybean, sorghum production with artificial drainage

  11. Inceptisols • Soils with weakly developed subsurface horizons • Aquepts - Inceptisols with a water table at or near the surface for much of the year • Anthrepts - Inceptisols with evidence of human habitation and farming • Gelepts - Inceptisols of very cold climates (mean annual soil temperature <0°C) • Cryepts - Inceptisols of cold climates • Ustepts - Inceptisols of semiarid and subhumid climates • Xerepts - temperate Inceptisols with very dry summers and moist winters • Udepts - Inceptisols of humid climates

  12. Inceptisol Diagram

  13. Inceptisol Suborder Distribution

  14. Example: Udept • LithicEutrudept • Northern Michigan • Formed in glacial drift over limestone • Very shallow to bedrock. • Note the irregular boundary between the Bw horizon and the bedrock (R). • Although relatively fertile, too shallow for cultivation • Used for pasture land and timber production.

  15. Entisols • Soils with little or no morphological development • Wassents - Entisols that are submerged for more than 21 hours every day • Aquents - Entisols with a water table at or near the surface for much of the year year • Arents - Entisols that have been disturbed and contain fragments of diagnostic horizons that are not arranged in any discernable order • Psamments - very sandy Entisols • Fluvents - alluvial Entisols commonly found on floodplains • Orthents - common Entisols that don't meet criteria of other suborders

  16. Entisol Diagram

  17. Entisol Suborder Distribution

  18. Example: Fluvent • SW Wisconsin • Fluvial landscapes • Stratified layers form from deposition of fluvial sediment • Thick buried A horizon • Irregular decrease in organic carbon with depth.