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Soil PowerPoint Presentation

Soil

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Soil

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  1. Soil The following power point was adapted from Ryan P. Murphy. A full collection of his amazing power points can be found at: http://sciencepowerpoint.com/index.html

  2. SOIL http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Uv1btp3E8qk

  3. Weathering is the process that will, overtime, create soil.

  4. Soil is a mixture of weathered rock and decaying organic material.

  5. Soil Formation Soil is formed as rock is broken down by weathering and mixes with other materials on the surface. Soil is constantly being formed wherever bedrock is exposed. Bedrock is the solid layer of rock beneath the soil.

  6. Five Factors That Affect Soil Formation Climate: temperature and rainfall Plants and animals Parent material Topography: flat lands are more fertile than hilly lands. Time: more time = healthier soil

  7. Four Steps To Soil Formation Bedrock disintegrates

  8. Four Steps To Soil Formation Bedrock disintegrates Parent material forms

  9. Four Steps To Soil Formation Bedrock disintegrates Parent material forms Organic matter collects

  10. Four Steps To Soil Formation Bedrock disintegrates Parent material forms Organic matter collects Thick vegetation grows and gives back to the soil

  11. Soil Composition Soil is a mixture of rock particles, minerals, decayed organic material, air, and water. The type of rock particles and minerals depends on the bedrock that was weathered and the type of weathering. Sand, Silt, and clay make up the portion of soil that comes from weathered rock.

  12. Humus Decayed, organic material in soil Dark in color Forms from decaying plant and animal material Creates spaces in soil for air and water Rich in nutrients that plants need to grow

  13. Color Of Soil- helps determine what soil is made of and its health

  14. Black Soil • Lots of organic matter (carbon) • May be poorly drained • Usually fertile

  15. Brown Soil • Lots of sand and clay • Well drained • Good soil

  16. Light brown, white, orange, red, yellow • Many compounds present (iron, manganese, sulfur) • High is salt • Not as healthy • Iron turn rust color when it mixes with oxygen (oxidation)

  17. Particles of Soil • The type of soil depends on its particles • The combinations of particle size can determine how well plants grow in soil

  18. Soil Texture and Particle Size Gravel: 2-7.5cm

  19. Soil Texture and Particle Size Gravel: 2-7.5cm Sand: 2-.125mm

  20. Soil Texture and Particle Size Gravel: 2-7.5cm Sand: 2-.125mm Silt

  21. Soil Texture and Particle Size Gravel: 2-7.5cm Sand: 2-.125mm Silt Clay

  22. Soil Horizons Soil Horizon is a layer of soil that differs in color and texture from the layers above or below it.

  23. O – organic layer (leaves, pine needles, twigs, decay)

  24. O – organic layer (leaves, pine needles, twigs, decay) • A – Top Soil: dark color is from the mixing of humus with weathered materials

  25. O – organic layer (leaves, pine needles, twigs, decay) • A – Top Soil: dark color is from the mixing of humus with weathered materials

  26. O – organic layer (leaves, pine needles, twigs, decay) • A – Top Soil: dark color is from the mixing of humus with weathered materials • E – Eluviated zone; movement of dissolved materials from A horizon

  27. O – organic layer (leaves, pine needles, twigs, decay) • A – Top Soil: dark color is from the mixing of humus with weathered materials • E – Eluviated zone; movement of dissolved materials from A horizon • B – Sub Soil; Illuviated zone – contains soil materials leeched from above

  28. O – organic layer (leaves, pine needles, twigs, decay) • A – Top Soil: dark color is from the mixing of humus with weathered materials • E – Eluviated zone; movement of dissolved materials from A horizon • B – Sub Soil; Illuviated zone – contains soil materials leeched from above • C – Parent Material; partially weathered mineral particles

  29. O – organic layer (leaves, pine needles, twigs, decay) • A – Top Soil: dark color is from the mixing of humus with weathered materials • E – Eluviated zone; movement of dissolved materials from A horizon • B – Sub Soil; Illuviated zone – contains soil materials leeched from above • C – Parent Material; partially weathered mineral particles • D/R - Bedrock

  30. Rate of Soil Formation Depends on climate and type of rock Weathering occurs most rapidly in a warm, rainy, climate Some rocks, like limestone, weather faster than other types of rock, like granite.