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Latin American Revolutions : PowerPoint Presentation
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Latin American Revolutions :

Latin American Revolutions :

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Latin American Revolutions :

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  1. Latin American Revolutions: • https://youtu.be/ZBw35Ze3bg8 • 14 minutes

  2. Do Now: • Which of the following statements do you agree with most? Explain your choice in a minimal of 2 paragraphsusing examples from your knowledge of the American and French Revolutions. (Think - What happened and what was the outcome!) What elements from these revolutions do you think spread to other parts of the world? Why? In other words, what would be the APPEAL of revolution? • People should wait for political change to occur on its own. • Violence is often the only way to bring about political change. • Negotiation is the best way to bring about political change. • Political change is pointless because it does not affect the lives of people daily

  3. Answers Enlightenment Ideas Nationalism Representative Governments Autonomy – Self Rule Equality Protection under laws Constitution Bill of Rights Independence

  4. Revolutions in Europe and Latin America 1790-1848 • Several revolutions erupted in Europe between 1815 and 1829, and the spread of revolutionary ideals would ignite new uprisings in 1830 and 1848. Also occurring during this time were the wars of independence in Latin America. These revolts began in the late 1700s and early 1800s and were inspired by the success of the American Revolution and the ideals of the French Revolution. • At the Congress of Vienna, the powers of Europe tried to uproot the “revolutionary seed” and suppress nationalist fervor. Others, however, challenged the order imposed in 1815. The clash of people with opposing ideologies, or systems of thought and belief, plunged Europe into more than 30 years of turmoil. • The Congress of Vienna was a victory for the conservative forces, who agreed to work together—in an agreement called the Concert of Europe—to support the political and social order that had existed before Napoleon and the French Revolution. • Conservatism—Preserving the “Old Order”, the “Old Regime.” • Goals: • Restore stability and order after 25 years of war in Europe • Create a “balance of power” to contain France and keep France weak • Protect the system of Absolute Monarchy • Re-draw national boundaries without any concern for national cultures • Conservatives were monarchs, nobles, church leaders, and those who believed in traditional ways. • They wanted to turn back the clock to the “good old days” before the French Revolution of 1789. • They believed that talk about natural rights and constitutional government could lead only to chaos and argued if change had to come, it must come slowly. • Prince Clemens von Metternich—sought to suppress revolutionary ideas. • Revolutions in Europe and Latin America 1790-1848 • Several revolutions erupted in Europe between 1815 and 1829, and the spread of revolutionary ideals would ignite new uprisings in 1830 and 1848. Also occurring during this time were the wars of independence in Latin America. These revolts began in the late 1700s and early 1800s and were inspired by the success of the American Revolution and the ideals of the French Revolution. • At the Congress of Vienna, the powers of Europe tried to uproot the “revolutionary seed” and suppress nationalist fervor. Others, however, challenged the order imposed in 1815. The clash of people with opposing ideologies, or systems of thought and belief, plunged Europe into more than 30 years of turmoil. • The Congress of Vienna was a victory for the conservative forces, who agreed to work together—in an agreement called the Concert of Europe—to support the political and social order that had existed before Napoleon and the French Revolution. • Conservatism—Preserving the “Old Order”, the “Old Regime.” • Goals: • Restore stability and order after 25 years of war in Europe • Create a “balance of power” to contain France and keep France weak • Protect the system of Absolute Monarchy • Re-draw national boundaries without any concern for national cultures • 1. Conservatives were monarchs, nobles, church leaders, and those who believed in traditional ways. • They wanted to turn back the clock to the “good old days” before the French Revolution of 1789. • They believed that talk about natural rights and constitutional government could lead only to chaos and argued if change had to come, it must come slowly. • Prince Clemens von Metternich — sought to suppress revolutionary ideas.

  5. 2. Liberalism— Embraced Enlightenment ideas. Because liberals spoke mostly for the bourgeoisie, or middle class, their ideas are sometimes called “bourgeois liberalism.” • Liberals included business owners, bankers, and lawyers, as well as politicians, newspaper editors, writers, and others who helped to shape public opinion. • Goals: • Governments based on written constitutions and separation of powers. • Rules elected by the people. • Spoke out against divine-right monarchy, the old aristocracy, and established churches. • Government’s role is to protect basic and natural rights of the people; • Freedom of thought, speech, and religion. • Supported Laissez-faire economics of Adam Smith • They saw the free market as an opportunity for capitalist entrepreneurs to succeed. • For centuries, European rulers had gained or lost lands through wars, marriages, and treaties. They exchanged territories and the people in them like pieces in a game. As a result, by 1815 Europe had several empires that included many nationalities. • Examples: Austrian, Russian and Ottoman empires • 3. Nationalism— Pride, loyalty, dedication, patriotism and love for one’s country. • Goal: • Unifying and gaining independence for people with a common national heritage. • In the 1800s, national groups who shared a common heritage set out to win their own states. Within the diverse Austrian empire, for example, various nationalist leaders tried to unite and win independence for each particular group. • PRO: Nationalism gave people with a common heritage a sense of identity and the goal of creating their own homeland. • CON: Often bred intolerance and led to persecution of other ethnic or national groups. • Autonomy = Self Rule—Each National group should have its own State!

  6. Central Europe Challenges the Old Order Spurred by the ideas of liberalism and nationalism, revolutionaries fought against the old order. During the early 1800s, rebellions erupted in the Balkan Peninsula and elsewhere along the southern fringe of Europe. The Balkans, in southeastern Europe, was inhabited by people of various religions and ethnic groups.

  7. Objectives: Chapter 8 Revolutions in Europe and Latin America (1790-1848)Section 1 - Ideologies After 1815 • Understand the goals of the conservatives. • Explain how liberals and nationalists challenged the old order. • Summarize the early challenges to the old order in Europe. How did conservatives clash with liberals and nationalists after 1815?

  8. Terms and People • ideology–a system of thought and belief • universal manhood suffrage–giving all adult men the right to vote • autonomy–self-rule The Congress of Vienna in 1815 was a victory for conservatives. For the next three decades, conservatives such as Prince Clemens von Metternich of Austria clashed with liberals and nationalists.

  9. They wished to restore: • Royal families who had lost their thrones during Napoleon’s wars • A social hierarchy in which the lower classes respected and obeyed their social superiors Conservatives wanted to restore the social and political order that had existed before 1789. Conservatives also backed established churches: • Catholic in Austria and southern Europe • Protestant in northern Europe • Eastern Orthodox in eastern Europe

  10. If change had to come, it must come slowly By defending peace and stability, all of society would benefit Conservatives believed that: Ideas such as natural rights could only lead to chaos Conservatives urged monarchs to use troops to crush protests. They believed that revolutionary ideas such as freedom of the press must be suppressed.

  11. Inspired by the Enlightenment and the French Revolution, liberals and nationalists challenged conservatives. • Middle-class or “bourgeois” liberalism represented the interests of business owners, bankers, lawyers, editors, and writers. • Liberals called for greater individual freedom.

  12. They opposed: • Divine-right monarchies • The old aristocracy • Established churches They saw the role of government as protecting the individual’s freedom of thought, speech, and religion. Liberals wanted governments based on written constitutions.

  13. As capitalists, they had different goals from those of the poor, working class. • They believed only those with a financial stake in society, male property owners, should be able to vote. • Only later would liberals supportuniversal manhood suffrage. Liberals supported laissez-faire and the free market.

  14. States such as Austria, Russia, and the Ottoman empire included many diverse ethnic groups. In the 1800s, national groups sought to create their own states based on a common heritage. Nationalists looked to unite people with common heritage. For centuries European rulers had traded lands through wars or royal marriages.

  15. Nationalism spurred revolts in southeastern and southern Europe in the early 1800s. • The Ottomans had ruled the Balkans in southeastern Europe for 300 years. • Karageorge led a Serbian revolt against the Ottomans between 1804 and 1813. • The revolt failed, but it increased Serbian nationalism and led to a revival of Serbian literature and culture.

  16. The Serbians were aided by Russia, which shared a similar language and the same Eastern Orthodox religion. With Russian help, Serbia gained autonomy within the Ottoman empire. In 1815, Milos Obrenovic led a second, successful revolt. The Ottoman sultan later agreed to grant Serbia formal independence. Russia would continue to play a major role in Serbia.

  17. In 1821, Greeks revolted against Ottoman rule. A long, bloody struggle united Greeks. Their leaders called the struggle “a national war, a holy war, a war the object of which is to reconquer the rights of individual liberty.” Western powers supported Greece, but later pressured the Greeks to accept a German king, showing their opposition to revolutionary nationalism.

  18. In the 1820s, revolts also occurred in Spain, Portugal, and the Italian peninsula. • Metternich urged conservative rulers to crush these uprisings. French armies suppressed a revolt in Spain. Austrian forces did the same in Italy. • Despite such shows of force, calls to overthrow the old order increased in the 1800s. • Socialists sought to reorganize property ownership.

  19. How did conservatives clash with liberals and nationalists after 1815? At the Congress of Vienna, the powers of Europe tried to uproot the “revolutionary seed” and suppress nationalist fervor. Others, however, challenged the order imposed in 1815. The clash of people with opposing ideologies plunged Europe into more than 30 years of turmoil.