Enduring Understandings The collision of social unrest and new political ideas can lead to revolution. Nationalism can act as both a unifying and divisive force. Questions What new ideas moved to the Latin American colonies that helped to fuel their revolutions for independence? How did nationalism play a role in supporting independence movements. Agenda 30 minutes to finish cartoons about rise and fall of Napoleon Review of Napoleon’s legacy and the end of the Napoleonic Era Complete p 22 about Latin American independence Answer – describe three similarities between the revolutions in South America, Haiti and Mexico Complete map of South America in review sheet and classwork documents page under Unit 2 Answer the above 2 Questions Latin American independence
V. Legacy of Napoleon • Values of the _________ ________were spread throughout Europe – equality, ______, justice, the _____ of man. • French Government Centralized with _________ • ______ _____ (Napoleonic codes) applicable to all citizens – right to own ______ – spreads _______ middle class property owners to all of Europe • Limited Suffrage ______ • _______ spreads to other European Nations • Sold _______ Territory to U.S. • Congress of ______ and balance of European ______ – led to peace in Europe.
V. Legacy of Napoleon • Values of the French Revolution were spread throughout Europe – equality, liberty, justice, the rights of man. • French Government Centralized with Constitution • Civil Code (Napoleonic codes) applicable to all citizens – right to own property – spreads bourgeois middle class property owners to all of Europe • Limited Suffrage Elections • Nationalismspreads to other European Nations • Sold Louisiana Territory to U.S. • Congress of Vienna and balance of European Power – led to peace in Europe.
Membership: • Austria • Prussia • Russia • France • Great Britain • Goals: • Establish lasting peace in Europe (based on theory of balance of power) • Prevent future French aggression • Restore monarchs Congress of Vienna • Actions Taken: • Creation of some new powers • Kingdom of Netherlands • adding to Kingdom of Sardinia • German Confederation • Independent Switzerland • Took land from France to return to pre-1792 borders • Developed Concert of Europe and Holy Alliance • Legacy • Short-term • conservatives returned to power • Revolts in many colonies like Brazil and Mexico • Long-term • 40 years of European peace • France slightly weakened and Britain and Germany strengthened to balance France • Rise of nationalism • Implemented balance of power concept Congress of Vienna
Reasons and strategies for Latin American independence movements. – Haiti – Slave Rebellion - 1791-1804 • Reasons slaves revolted • Whites, a small minority, used brutal methods • African slaves were politically powerless • African slaves were terrorized • African slaves far outnumbered whites. • Enlightened ideas of liberty and equality • Strategies employed to gain independence • African priest Boukman inspired slaves to revolt • Toussaint L’Ouverture became a very successful military and diplomatic leader by finding enemy’s weaknesses • Dessalines became the next leader of revolution promoting Haitian nationalism
Reasons and strategies for Latin American independence movements. – South America – 1814-1824 • Reasons Americans revolted • Enlightenment ideas of liberty and equality, and popular sovereignty • Opposed being ruled by Napoleon’s brother, who was made the illegitimate King of Spain - 1808 • Class conflict between peninsulares and creoles • When Spanish King returned after defeat of Napoleon in 1814, rebels, mainly Creoles, fought to become independent of Spain and • Creoles also wanted to replace Peninsulares as the class with political power. • Strategies employed by Bolivar and San Martin • Surprise tactics by Bolivar • San Martin – forced surprise march combined with alliance with O’Higgins • Unity between Bolivar and San Martin • Bolivar’s command of a large, very nationalistic motivated volunteer army.
Reasons and strategies for Latin American independence movements. – Mexico – 1810-1821 • Importance of grito de Dolores • Padre Miguel Hidalgo used this as a call for peasants to rise up against Spain • Morelos also lost, but furthered the idea of Mexican independence basing it on the popular support for Mexicans governing Mexico (popular sovereignty) • How did each racial group play a role in independence? • Indios and Mestizos fought for the revolution – they were the down-trodden underclasses • Creoles later joined independence to maintain their social and economic positions as the wealthy landowners.
Similarities Mexico • South America Haiti