Latin American Independence Movements Effects and Obstacles for New Nations
Interactive PowerPoint Directions • The students are to highlight key terms, people, dates and events. • Next to the slides, the students are to add information from the oral part of the lecture by the teacher or from the YouTube videos. • At the end of each section, there are Regroup Discussion Questions for students in their small groups to answer as review before the class moves on.
SOCIAL HIERARCHY: Based on a racial hierarchyThe lighter the skin, the more valuable the person Peninsulares: Native Spaniards Creoles: People of pure European blood But born in the New World P Mulattos: African + European blood C Mestizos: Indian + European blood M & M NA & A Native Americans and Africans CAUSES
Colonial Society • Peninsulares: white people born on the Iberian peninsula in either Spain or Portugal to Spanish or Portuguese parents • Creoles: the children of peninsulare parents born in the new world. White people, but held a permanent 2nd class status • Where is the Iberian Peninsula?!
Colonial Society • Mestizo: a person of mixed European and Indian blood • Mulatto:a person of mixed European and African blood
Colonial Society • African $lave$: people brought to New Spain as a labor force to replace the Indians • Indians: indigenous people with the least amount of value in this hierarchy because they could not do the work the slaves could • Indigenous means
INTERNATIONAL: THE MONROE DOCTRINE “The American continents…are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European powers.” - James Monroe, 1823
President Monroe of the United States issued the Monroe Doctrine in 1823. It stated the United States would oppose any attempt by Europeans to establish new colonies in the Americas.
The Monroe Doctrine made it clear to the world that the United States had special interests in the Western Hemisphere.
U.S. Interventions • 1898: Spanish-American War that made Cuba an American protectorate and annexed Puerto Rico • 1903: Building of Panama Canal that allowed America to control a 10 mile strip of land between Colombia and Panama • 1915-1934: American Maries in Haiti • 1912-1933: Americans Marines in Nicaragua • American forces also sent to Cuba, Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Panama, Colombia, and Dominican Republic to protect American interests
The Difficulties of Nation Building in Latin America • 1830-1870 the new Latin American nations - republics, faced a number of serious problems from. • Wars of independence resulted in staggering loss of people, property and livestock. • The new nations, unsure of their precise boundaries, attempted to settle border disputes with war. • Poor roads, a lack of railroads, thick jungles, and mountains made communication, transportation and national unity difficult.
After independence, dictatorships, unstable governments, and poverty affected many Latin American nations. Land and wealth remained in the hands of a small elite. Caudillos or military leaders ruled in some places.
POLITICAL ISSUES: THE CAUDILLOS * By 1830, nearly all Latin American countries were ruled by Caudillos. WHY? * The upper classes supported dictatorship because it kept the lower classes out of power. * The lower classes did not have experience with democracy. Dictatorship seemed normal.
POLITICAL: Caudillos • Ruled mostly by military force • Usually supported by the landed elite • Key to keeping the newly independent countries unified • Many modernized the country with roads, canals, ports, and schools • Juan Manuel del Rosas in Argentina is an example of this • Benito Juarez of Mexico is an example of this
POLITICAL: Caudillos • Some were destructive and abuses power • Mexican General Antonio Lopez de Santa is an example of this • Held office of president 11 different times between 1833-1855 • Called himself the “Napoleon of the West” • Misused state funds, stopped reform programs caused war between Mexico and United States from 1846-1848 where Mexico lost almost half of its territory
POLITICAL ISSUES: Church vs. State • Church and state conflict; liberals wanted to curtail the power of the church while conservatives fought for maintaining the Churches privileges. • In Mexico, 1858-1861, the division between church and state led to a civil war.
POLITICAL: Revolutions • 1910-1920: Revolution in Mexico • Caudillo Porfirio Diaz caused wages of workers to decline • Francisco Madero replaced Diaz and made many reforms, but it was not enough • Emiliano Zapata called for major agricultural reforms and gained the support of the peasants: “LAND AND LIBERTY” • Revolution caused great damage to economy but resulted in a new constitution in 1917
ECONOMIC: ONE-CROP ECONOMIES * Now that trade was not restricted to the mother country, the U.S. and Great Britain became the new countries’ major trading partners. *Cuba: sugar *Brazil: coffee*Central America: bananas * A colonial economy continued…Latin America mainly exported cash crops and raw materials while importing manufactured goods.
ECONOMIC: AN IMBALANCE OF TRADE * As the imbalance of trade grew, Latin American countries took out large loans from the U.S., Britain, and Germany to build infrastructure. * When the countries could not pay back their loans, foreign lenders gained control of major industries in Latin America.
ECONOMIC: Expanding Exports • After 1870, Latin America began to diversify their crops a little more • Argentina: wheat and beef • Brazil: coffee • Central America: coffee and bananas • Peru: sugar and silver • Also increased industrialization and built factories • Led to growth of middle class who sought peaceful liberal reforms and not revolution • The middle class sided with the land-holding elite
SOCIAL: THE QUESTION OF LAND AT LEAST, DID THE SOCIAL PYRAMID CHANGE? NO! * Once the Spaniards were expelled, the new governments seized their lands and put them up for sale, BUT….only the Creoles could afford to buy them. * Thus, the Creoles replaced the Peninsulares at the top of the social pyramid, but other classes remained at the bottom of the ladder.
SOCIAL: Land Inequality • Land was the basis for wealth, social prestige, and political power • Problem was the domination by the landed elite of the Peninsulares and Creoles • Large estates, Haciendas, were the way of life • The estates were so large that they could not be farmed efficiently and effectively. • For example, by 1848, the Sanchez Navarro family in Mexico owned 17 estates made up of 16 million acres
SOCIAL: Land Inequality • Landed elite ran the governments, controlled the courts, and kept a system of inexpensive labor • Land owners made huge profits off growing only one cash crop to export • Most of the population had no land to grow basic food crops and lived in poverty
Regroup: • What happened to the newly independent nations? • What were the different obstacles they faced? • Which does your group think was the biggest obstacle and why?
YouTube Video • Latin American Revolutions: Crash Course World History #31 • CrashCourse • Published August 2012 • Running Time of 13:42 Minutes • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZBw35Ze3bg8