Latin American Independence Test 2/9
Late 1700’s -American Revolution & French Revolution • Early 1800’s -Colonists in Latin America were tired of watching Spain and Portugal gain riches at their expense. What world events influenced the Latin American independence movements?
Mestizo – People of mixed Spanish and Native American descent. • Hacienda – A plantation owned by the Spaniards or the Catholic Church. • Encomiendas – The rights to demand taxes or labor from the Native Americas given to the Spanish settlers. Vocabulary
Revolution – A political movement where the people overthrow the government and set up another. • Criollo – Of Spanish parents but born in Latin America • Caudillo – Latin American leaders trained by Bolivar…most were strict ruling military officers. • Mullato - A person of mixed white and Black ancestry. Vocabulary
Mexico’s (New Spain) Multilayered Society Spanish- ruling class (peninsulares) Criollos- military leaders *Draw this chart.* Mestizos & Mullatos Natives & Africans (slaves) • largest group
1789 –Slaves were given freedom after the French Revolution . . . HOWEVER , in 1791 they changed their minds. • Toussaint L’Ouverture – A former slave who was educated led the revolution in Saint-Dominque(Haiti) beginning in 1791. • Haiti became independent in 1804. How did the Caribbean gain its independence?
Haiti was the first Latin American country to break free from Imperialism. • However, they have lived under harsh dictators and are the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere
In 1810, Miguel Hidalgo, a priest from Dolores, Mexico began the revolution in Mexico. He believed… • Slaves should be freed • Land held by Spain should be returned to Mexican farmers • Spain should stop taxing Mexican citizens so heavily • “Cry of Dolores”- Hidalgo rallied the Mestizos and Criollos and rang the church bell to go against the Spaniards. • By 1811 Hidalgo was executed, but revolution continued. • 1821- Spanish troops leave Mexico; Hidalgo is known as “Father of Mexican Independence” How did Mexico gain its independence?
Spanish control in South America for 300 yearsWho controlled the gray area?
Two men worked their ways around South America fighting the Spanish for independence. • Simon Bolivar from Venezuela - nicknamed El Libertador • Bolivar fought for 15 years to liberate many countries in S. America. • Bolivia was named after him. • Jose de San Martin from Argentina • The Spanish were defeated in 1821. But there is still Brazil? How did South America gain independence from Mexico?
In the 1800’s French invades Spain and Portugal. • Portugal’s royal family flees to Brazil for safety. • King’s son Dom Pedro was left behind to rule the “colony” • 1822 Dom Pedro declared Brazil independent. How did Brazil gain independence from Portugal?