Latin American Independence Sunday, January 5, 2020
Social Classes • Peninsulares • Smallest percentage, highest political positions • Wealthy Spanish/Portuguese-born citizens • Creoles • Spaniards born in Latin America • Could not hold political office • Could join army • Mestizos • Mixture of European and Indian • Mulattos • Mixture of European and African • Slaves could also be Native Amer. 1 2 3 4
Haiti • Western part of Hispaniola ( large Island in the Caribbean Sea ) • Inspired by the American Revolution • It was a French Colony • Called: Saint-Dominique in (French) • Called: Santo Domingo (Spanish) • Large slave population, they were treated brutally, and lived in poor conditions
1791 • 100,000 slaves revolted • Former Slave - Toussaint L’Ouverture soon became their leader • 1801 • He gained control of the island and freed all the enslaved Africans !
1802 • France sent troops to capture Toussaint • He was sent to a French prison where he died • French were unsuccessful in stopping the rebellion • 1804 • Haiti declared its independence from France • Only successful slave revolt in history • THIS WAS THE FIRST LATIN • COUNTRY TO GAIN • INDEPENDENCE
Quiz And Switch / Shoulder Partner What were the 4 Main levels of Social Class in the Latin America Colonies ? 1. Peninsulares 2. Creoles 3. Mestizo 4. Mulattos & Slaves
Quiz And Switch / Shoulder Partner Q. Where did the first Successful Fight for Independence Take Place & with what Mother Country was the fight with A. Hatti Q. Where is Hatti Located and describe it Political Border ? A. In the Caribbean Sea. It is made up of half of a large island and has a border with Dominican Republic
Quiz And Switch / Shoulder Partner Q. Who was the Leader of the Revolution in Hatti? A. Toussaint L’Ouverture Q. Why was this Revolution So Unique or different than other historical revolutions? A. Because it was led by a Former Slave and other slaves and it was successful.
Quiz And Switch / Shoulder Partner Q. What was the Final outcome for Toussaint L’Ouverture ? A. He was transported to France by ship and put in prison where he died. Q. What is the correct order for the following Revolutions? Hatian, American, French A. 1st- American, 2nd- French, 3rd- Hatian
Latin American Independence Sunday, January 5, 2020
Creoles: Spaniards Born in Spanish Colonies • Sent Back to Europe to be Educated where they were exposed to Enlightenment ideas! • They came back to the colonies they were born in and led the majority of independence movements against the mother countries • ( Spain France Portugal • Napoleon’s attempts to conquer nations and extend control over its colonies frightened creoles
Nationalism Ideas spread to the colonies made people desire self-rule • Creoles and the Mestizo classes began fighting for rights and equality • Enlightenment ideas such as # 1 Locke’s idea of consent of the governed along with # 2 nationalism ideas that justified rebellion against Spain and the other European Mother Countries ( France Portugal)
Quiz And Switch / Shoulder Partner • Q. What Colonial Social Class led the Independence Movements in Latin America? • A. Creoles • Q. Where were Creoles Born and Formerly Educated? • A. Born in a Latin Colony; and then Educated in their mother countries back in Europe
Quiz And Switch / Shoulder Partner • Q. What were the two European Major Concepts that inspired the Creoles to seek out independence? • A. The Enlightenment and Nationalism • Q. What political ambition did Nationalism help create that the Creoles were willing to fight for? • A. To have self-rule
IN Mexico… • Independence Movement led by mestizos at first • Father Miguel Hidalgo called for a rebellion and a crowd marched toward Mexico City • They were defeated in 1811 by the upper classes • ( The Creole and Peninsulares)… who feared losing power
They tried again 4 years later and FAILED AGAIN…..By 1821, the Upper Class Creoles Were afraid of losing their power, & declared their independence from Spain. • The Upper Class joined the Mestizo class to gain independence !
1823, nations of Central America declare their independence from Mexico After Mexico took control of that land after their Successful Revolution against Spain. • Nicaragua, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, and Costa Rica. All gain their Independence from MEXICO
Quiz And Switch / Shoulder Partner • Q. Who was the leader of the Mexican Independence Movement? • A. Father Miguel Hidalgo • Q. What class of people joined Hidalgo’s Rebellion? • A. It was the Mestizo / Lower classes
Quiz And Switch / Shoulder Partner • Q. What Social Classes feared losing their power and influence in the colonies? • A. Creoles and Peninsulares- • Q. What social class alliance happened that allowed Mexico to win and gain their independence from Spain? • A. The Creoles and Mestizos came together to defeat the Spanish and Win Independence.
Quiz And Switch / Shoulder Partner • Q. What hypocritical thing did Mexico do shortly after gaining their Independence form Spain. • A. Mexico seized power over all of Central America. • Q. How do all of the countries of Central America react to Mexican Rule? • A. They all fight for and gain their Independence from Mexico.
South American Independence • Simon Bolivar – Creole general led the movement • 1811 - Began in Venezuela then moved to Colombia and Ecuador • He met Jose de San Martin who had freed Chile • Together they liberated Peru • He dreamed of uniting the colonies into a single country • Gran Colombia lasted for a short time • *****But Because of StongNationalism The countries soon separated !
Quiz And Switch / Shoulder Partner • Q. Who led the South American Colonial Independence Movement? • A. Simon Bolivar • Q. From who were South American Colonies trying to win their independence From? • A. Spain
Quiz And Switch / Shoulder Partner • Q. In what two Colonies did the Independence Movement in South America begin? • A. Venezuela and Colombia • Q. What was Bolivar’s Big Dream for South America • A. To unite it into a country called Gran Columbia
Quiz And Switch / Shoulder Partner • Q. What was the reason for why Bolivar’s Dream of a United South America was unable to come true? • A. Strong Nationalism kept the countries from staying united. • ** Remember Nationalism is Strong loyalty to a common ethnicity, language, culture, and religion.