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Latin American Independence

Latin American Independence

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Latin American Independence

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Presentation Transcript

  1. Latin American Independence

  2. Colonial Economy • Portuguese and Spanish colonies; Brazil, Mexico, most of South America • Encomienda system • Haciendas • European diseases kill Indians • Slaves introduced to South America

  3. Colonial Society • Social classes and ranks; royal officials, owners of officials, owners of large estates, mine owners • Peninsulares, original citizens of Spain or Portugal • Creoles, Spaniards born in colonies • Mestizos, American Indian and European background • Mulattoes, African and European ancestry

  4. Haiti’s Slave Revolution • 1791 slave revolt in Saint Domingue • Mulattoes and blacks united under the leadership of Toussaint-Louverture, a free slave, only successful slave revolted by slaves anywhere in the world

  5. Mexico and Central America • Napoleon's conquest of Spain provided a perfect time for the colonists to gain independence • “the cry of Dolores” • Revolts in Mexico led by Hidalgo, Pavon and Iturbide, all failed • Iturbide would declare independence in 1821 • Central America declared independence from Mexico in 1823.

  6. Spanish South America • Independence led by Simon Bolivar "the Liberator" • La Palta in 1811, New Granada in 1819, Venezuela in 1821 • Bolivar became president of Gran Colombia (Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, and Panama • Martin and O'Higgins led revolts in Chile and Peru, 1818 • Upper Peru became a separate republic and named Bolivia

  7. Foreign Reactions to Independence • The Monroe Doctrine, 1832, President Monroe claimed that US would not intervene in colonies, and would oppose any power that tried to reestablish lost or new colonies