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Chapter 8

Chapter 8. GIS software. Introduction. Chapter 1 : four technical parts of GIS(network , hardware , software , database ) . This chapter 8 : concerned with GIS software , the geoprocessing engine of a complete , working GIS .

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Chapter 8

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  1. Chapter 8 GIS software

  2. Introduction • Chapter 1 : four technical parts of GIS(network , hardware , software , database ) . • This chapter 8 : concerned with GIS software , the geoprocessing engine of a complete , working GIS . (GIS software packages aim to provide a unified approach to working with geographic information )

  3. GIS software builds : 1- foundation of a computer operating system – the instruction set that controls all the activities of a computer . 2- capabilities to provide a controlled environment for geographic information management , analysis and interpretation . 3- support for geographic data types and processing capabilities to facilitate geographic information science .

  4. Evolution of GIS software • GIS market grew in the 1970s and 1980s . • In the late 1970s and early 1980s , the standard means of communicating with a GIS was to type in command lines . • Two key developments in the late 1980s : 1- command line interfaces were supplemented and eventually replaced by ( GUIs ) . 2- a customization capability was added to allow specific-purpose applications to be created from the generic toolboxes .

  5. Evolution of GIS software • new terms were developed to distinguish these sub-types of GIS software: 1- planning information systems . 2- AM / FM . 3- land information system .

  6. Architecture of GIS software • GIS is usually first introduced into organizations in the context of a single , fixed-term project . • The technical components of an operational GIS are assembled for the duration of the project , which maybe from several months to a few years • As GIS becomes more pervasive , organizations learn more about it and begin to become GIS is a useful way to structure many of the organization’s assets , processes and workflows .

  7. Three-tier architecture of GIS software system : Presentation Business logic Data server User interface tools Data management Data

  8. Three types of GIS implementation configuration • Project . • Department . • Enterprise . This type of computing architecture is usually referred to as client-server because clients request data or processing services from servers that perform work to satisfy client requests.

  9. Software data models and customization • Customization is the process of modifying GIS software to create a specific-purpose application . • It can be as simple as deleting unwanted controls from a GUI . • Late 1980s , when customization capabilities were first added to GIS software , each vendor had to provide a proprietary customization system simply because no standard customization systems existed .

  10. GIS on the desktop and on the internet

  11. Building GIS software system: GIS software system:are built released as GIS S.W products by GIS- vendor soft development and product teams: Key of GIS Software system: *Architecture *User interface *Tools, data manager *Data model *Customization environment The key GIS software components deal with user application, tools and data access.

  12. Key of GIS software system “advantages” • Building components gives greater control over system capabilities. • Enable specific-purpose optimization. • Buying components can save valuable time and many. Example of components: It have been purchased and licensed for use in GIS software system (Arc view GIS, Microsoft visual Basic)

  13. *The key GIS software component deals with user applications, tools, and data access.*A key GIS implementation issue is whether to buy a system or to build one, increasingly users prefer to buy complete system.

  14. Modern GIS software system has three types of components:*User applications ( locate data, make, maps, geocode) *Geographic tools *Data access The main data access:*Vector *Raster*Spatial reference *Data manager

  15. Vector and Raster: 1 Sub system are responsible 2 Low level manipulation • Spatial reference: 1 Coordinate transformation 2 Map projection • Data manager: 1 Responsible for storing geographic objects 2 Provide sophisticated service

  16. Types of GIS software system: • The distinctive feature of professional GIS include data collection and editing, database administration advanced geoprocessing and analysis and other specials tools. Example of professional GIS software: • ESRI ArcInfo • Smallworld

  17. Component GIS are used by developers to create focused application For examples: *blue marble *geographic geobject *esriobjects *MaplinfoMapx *Cost is 1000-2000 for the developer kit and 100 per

  18. GIS viewer • These include • *ESRI’s ,ArcExplorer, Intergraph’s GeoMediaviewer , MapInfo’s ProViewer • **They help to establish market share

  19. Internet GIS • Internet GIS have the highest number of users although internet users typically focus on simple display and query tasks Others types of GIS software For example: *ESRI ArcInfo *ArcView *Raster based CAD based and GIS application servers are also important types of GIS software

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