Structures, Processes, and Responses of Plants By Michelle A. O’Malley League Academy of Communication Arts
Activating Videos • Plant and animal cells (1:45) • Characteristics of Living Things (5:30) ***View Videos from Video Resources***
Summarize the characteristics that all organisms share (including the obtainment and use of resources for energy, the response to stimuli, the ability to reproduce, and process of physical growth and development Standard: 6-2.1
Essential Questions and Vocabulary for Standard 6-2.1 • Characteristics of Living Things • Essential Question: what are the characteristics that all living things share? • Unit Vocabulary: Energy, stimulus, reproduction resources, and growth and development
Unit Vocabulary • Energy – The ability to do work (plants use the Sun’s energy to complete the process of photosynthesis) • Stimulus – A change in an organism’s surroundings that cause the organism to react • Reproduction resources – the process that occurs in the life of the organism that results in the organism becoming more complex structurally. (Asexual reproduction and Sexual reproduction) • Growth – the process whereby the organism becomes larger. • Development - the process that occurs in the life of the organism that results in the organism becoming more complex structurally.
Characteristics that all organisms share • They obtain and use resources for energy • They respond to stimuli • They reproduce • They grow and develop
Characteristics that all organisms share: They obtain and use resources for energy • All organisms must obtain resources, such as food and water, which provide required energy to perform the basic process of life, such as growing and developing, or repairing injured parts. • Plants provide their own food for energy through the process of photosynthesis, while other organisms must find an external source for food • Food provides organisms with a source of energy through the process of respiration
Photosynthesis • Photosynthesis is the process by which plants and some other organisms capture light energy and use it to make food from carbon dioxide and water • Photo means “light” • Synthesis means “to make” • During photosynthesis carbon dioxide and water combine in the presence of light to produce (make) sugar and oxygen
Respiration • Respiration is the process of breakingdown food to release its energy
Characteristics that all organisms share: They respond to stimuli • A Stimulus is any change in an organism’s surroundings that will cause the organism to react. • Examples of environmental stimuli include changes in the amount of light present, changes in temperature, sound, amount of water, space or amounts or types of food present. • The reaction to the stimulus is called a Response, which can be an action or behavior performed by the organism. • Non-living things do not respond to environmental changes this way
Characteristics that all organisms share: They Reproduce • Organisms have the ability to reproduce, or produce offspring that have similar characteristics as the parents. • There are two basic types of reproduction: • Asexual Reproduction is a reproductive process that involves only one parent and produces offspring that are identical to the parent • Sexual Reproduction is a reproductive process that involves two parents. • The egg (female reproductive cell) and sperm (male reproductive cell) from these two parents combine to make an offspring that is different from both parents
Asexual Reproduction Sexual Reproduction
Characteristics that all organisms share: They grow and develop • All organisms grow and develop • Growth is the process whereby the organism becomes larger. • Development is the process that occurs in the life of the organism that results in the organism becoming more complex structurally. • Organisms require energy to grow and develop
They must have ways to obtain water and other materials from their surroundings Plants need adaptations for obtaining water and other nutrients from the soil A common adaptation to reduce water loss to the air is a waxy water proof layer called the cuticle that covers the leaves of most plants Retain water Adaptations such as transporting tissue called vascular tissue helps plants transport water, minerals, & food throughout the plant Transport materials throughout the plant In vascular plants, vascular tissue strengthens and supports the large bodies of the plants Support their bodies All plants undergo sexual reproduction that involves fertilization. Fertilization occurs when a sperm cell unites with an egg cell. The fertilized egg is called a zygote Reproduce successfully
They must have ways to obtain water and minerals from their surroundings Retain water Transport materials throughout the plant Support their bodies Reproduce successfully Adaptations to obtain water and minerals Adaptations to reduce water loss by way of the cuticle Transport minerals and water by way of vascular tissue Vascular tissue strengthens and supports plants Need to reproduce – sexual reproduction and asexual reproduction What do all plants need to survive? What adaptations do plants need to survive on land?
Activating Video • Basics of Biology: How living things are classified (20:08) ***View Videos from Video Resources***
Recognize the hierarchical structure of the classification (taxonomy) of organisms (including the seven major levels or categories of living things – kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species). Standard: 6-2.2
Essential Questions and Vocabulary for Standard 6-2.2 • Classification of Living Things • Essential Questions: 1)How are living things classified 2) What are the five kingdoms of living things? • Unit Vocabulary: classification, taxonomy, kingdom, species, scientific name, plant, animal, fungi, protist, and monera
Unit Vocabulary • Classification or Taxonomy - is a system of categorizing organisms based on shared observable characteristics • Kingdom - is the broadest level of classification • Species - is the smallest classification group • Scientific name – the name of an organism that is made up of its genus and species. (it is written in italics (Genus species) with the genus capitalized) • Plant - all plants are made of many cells and are able to make their own food through photosynthesis • Animal - all animals are made of many cells and must get their energy from eating other organisms • Fungi - Fungi can either be made of a single cell or many cells. • Protist - Protists are one-celled organisms with a cell nucleus or simple many-celled organisms. • Monera - all bacteria belong to this kingdom
Hierarchical Structure of the classification (taxonomy) of organisms • Organisms are classified in order from the broadest (largest) level (kingdom) to the narrowest (smallest) level (species) • Scientists use a classification system to help identify billions of different kinds of organisms on Earth. • Scientists classify these organisms based on their similarities and differences
Hierarchical Structure of the classification (taxonomy) of organisms: Classification or taxonomy • Classification or taxonomy is a system of categorizing organisms based on shared observable characteristics • There are seven levels in this system and each level contains fewer types of organisms than the level before • From largest to smallest • Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, and Species.
Hierarchical Structure of the classification (taxonomy) of organisms: Kingdom • Kingdom is the broadest level of classification • While scientists currently disagree as to how many kingdoms there are, most support a five-kingdom system. • Plant • Animal • Fungi • Protist • Monera
Activating Video • The Biology: The science of Life – The world of living things (15:01) ***View Videos from Video Resources***
Hierarchical Structure of the classification (taxonomy) of organisms: Five Kingdoms • Plant Kingdom – all plants are made of many cells and are able to make their own food through photosynthesis • Animal Kingdom – all animals are made of many cells and must get their energy from eating other organisms • Fungi Kingdom – Fungi can either be made of a single cell or many cells. • Fungi can not make their own food, so they must get their energy by feeding on living or dead organism
Hierarchical Structure of the classification (taxonomy) of organisms: Species • Species is the smallest classification group • A species consists of all the animals of the same type, who are able to breed and produce young of the same kind.
Hierarchical Structure of the classification (taxonomy) of organisms: Five Kingdoms (continued) • Protist Kingdom – Protists are one-celled organisms with a cell nucleus or simple many-celled organisms. • Some protists feed on other organisms and some are capable of making their own food through photosynthesis • Monera Kingdom – all bacteria belong to this kingdom • Bacteria are single-celled organisms without a cell nucleus • Most bacteria feed on other organisms, but some make their own food through photosynthesis
Hierarchical Structure of the classification (taxonomy) of organisms: Scientific Name • Scientific Name of an organism is made up of its genus and species. • it is written in italics (Genus species) with the genus capitalized
Compare the characteristic structures of various groups of plants (including vascular or nonvascular, seed or spore-producing, flowering or cone-bearing, and monocot or dicot) Standard: 6-2.3
Essential Questions and Vocabulary for Standard 6-2.3 • Characteristics of Plants: • Essential Questions: What characteristics do all plants share? • Unit Vocabulary: multi-cellular, eukaryotes, and autotrophs • Taxonomy of the Plant Kingdom • Essential Questions: How is the plant kingdom classified? • Unit Vocabulary: non-vascular, vascular, spore producing, seed producing, gymnosperm, and angiosperm • Characteristics of seed plants and gymnosperms • Essential Questions: 1) What are the characteristics of seed plants? 2) What are the characteristics of gymnosperms? • Unit Vocabulary: xylem, phloem, seeds, monocot, dicot, and cones
Unit Vocabulary • Multi-cellular – a type of organism that is made up of many cells • Eukaryotes – organisms with cells that contain nuclei and other cell structures • Autotroph – an organism that makes its own food • Non-vascular – a low-growing plant that lacks vascular tissue • Vascular – a plant that has vascular tissue • Spore-producing – plants that produce spores for reproduction (ferns and mosses) • Seed-producing – plants that produce seeds (gymnosperms and angiosperms) • Gymnosperm – a plant that produces seeds that are not enclosed by a protective covering • Angiosperm – a plant that produces seeds that are enclosed in a protective structure • Xylem – a vascular tissue through which water and nutrients move in some plants • Phloem – the vascular tissue through which food moves in some plants • Seed – the plant structure that contains a young plant inside a protective covering • Monocot – an angiosperm that has only one seed leaf • Dicot – an angiosperm that has two seed leaves • Cone – the reproductive structure of a gymnosperm
Plant Kingdom • Organisms in the Plant Kingdom are classified into groups based on specific structures • All plants included in this kingdom are then broken down into smaller divisions(or phyla) based on several characteristics, for example: • Nonvascular and vascular plants: Plants that can circulate fluids (like rainwater) through their bodies (vascular) or need to absorb them from the moisture that surrounds them (nonvascular) • Spore-producing and seed producing plants: How they reproduce – by spores or different kinds of seeds • Cone-bearing and flowering plants: Whether they produce seeds in cones or in flowers • Monocot and dicot plants • Monocot plants are angiosperms that have only one seed leaf • Dicot plants are that have two seed leaves
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Non-vascular_plant Plant Kingdom: Nonvascular Plants • Nonvascular plants are plants that cannotcirculate rainwater through their stems and leaves but must absorb it from the environment that surrounds them. • These plants do not have true roots, stems, or leaves and are usually small in size because they do not have vascular tissue to carry substances within the plant. • They are an important foundation plant for the forest ecosystem and they help prevent erosion by carpeting the forest floor • Examples of nonvascular plants are: Mosses, Liverworts, and hornworts
Vascular Plants (2:04) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fern Plant Kingdom: Vascular Plants • Vascular Plants are the largest group in the plant kingdom • These plants have true roots, stems, and leaves. • The stems of these plants can either be woody, for example trees and many shrubs, or herbaceous, for example grasses, dandelions, or tomato plants • Vascular plants also have tube-like structures that provide support and help circulatewater and food throughout the plant.
http://www.microscopyu.com/galleries/smz1500/her baceousandwoodystemlarge.html http://www.hcs.ohio-state.edu/hcs300/anat2.htm How are stems classified? STEMS HERBACEOUSSTEMS: SOFT STEMS SUCH AS DANDELIONS, PEPPERS, AND TOMATO PLANTS WOODY STEMS: HARD AND RIGID SUCH AS MAPLE TREES, PINE TREES, AND ROSES
Plants that make spores: mosses, ferns, liverworts, and horsetails (2:34) ***View Videos from Video Resources***
http://amerfernsoc.org/ http://www.home.aone.net.au/~byzantium/ferns/about.html http://www.backyardnature.net/mosses.htm Plant Kingdom: Spore-producing Plants • Spore-producing plants are plants that produce spores for reproduction instead of seeds. • Spores are much smaller than seeds • Almost all flowerless plants produce spores • Examples include mosses and ferns
Mosses and liverworts (0:50) Horsetails and Ferns (1:31) ***View Videos from Video Resources***
Plants that make seeds: gymnosperms and angiosperms (1:59) http://www.botany.uwc.ac.za/ecotree/flowers/cones.htm#top http://waynesword.palomar.edu/trmar98.htm ***View Videos from Video Resources*** Plant Kingdom: Seed-producing Plants • Seed-producing plants are plants that reproduce through seeds • Seed plants make their own seeds • From those seeds – new plants grow • There are two major groups of seed-producing plants: • Cone-bearing plants • Flowering plants
Conifers (1:31) http://www.botany.uwc.ac.za/ecotr ee/flowers/cones.htm http://www.botany.uwc.ac.za/ecotree/flowers/cones.htm http://www.botany.uwc.ac.za/ecotree/flowers/cones.htm Plant Kingdom: Seed-producing Cone-bearing Plants ***View Videos from Video Resources*** • Cone-bearing plants are the largest and most diverse group of seed-producing plants • Most cone-bearing plants are evergreen plants • In addition, to having cones, conifers are trees or shrubs that never have flowers and that have needle-like leaves
Plant Kingdom: Seed-producingFlowering Plants • A vast majority of plants belong to this category; for example, most trees, shrubs, vines, flowers, fruits, vegetables, and legumes. • Flowering plants differ from conifers because they grow their seeds inside an ovary, which is embedded in a flower • The flower then becomes a fruit containing the seeds • In the seeds of flowering plants, food is stored in one or two “seed leaves” called Cotyledons
http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/BioBookPLANTANATII.htmlhttp://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/BioBookPLANTANATII.html Plant Kingdom: Monocot Plants • monocots have seed leaves with one food storage area • Flowers of monocots have either three petals or multiples of three • The leaves of monocots are long and slender with veins that are parallel to each other • The vascular tube structures are usually scattered randomly throughout the stem • Examples include plants for example grass, corn, rice, lilies, and tulips.
http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/BioBookPLANTANATII.htmlhttp://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/BioBookPLANTANATII.html Plant Kingdom: Dicot Plants • Dicots have seed leaves with two storage areas • Flowers of dicots have either fouror fivepetals or multiples of these numbers • The leaves are usually wide with veins that branch off from each other • The vascular tube structures are arranged in a circle within the stem • Examples include roses, dandelions, maple, and oak trees
Summarize the basic functions of the structures of a flowering plant for defense, survival, and reproduction Standard: 6-2.4
Essential Questions and Vocabulary for Standard 6-2.4 • Characteristics of angiosperms: • Essential Questions: What are the characteristics of angiosperms? • Unit Vocabulary: fruit and flowers • Functions of structures • Essential Questions: 1) What is the job of the structures of angiosperms? 2) How do plants defend themselves from other living things? 3) What are the jobs of the different parts of a flower? • Unit Vocabulary: roots, stems, leaves, seeds, thorns, poisons, camouflage
Unit Vocabulary • Fruit – the ripened ovary and other structures that enclose one or more seeds of an angiosperm • Flowers – the reproductive structure of an angiosperm • Roots – anchor plants, transport food and water, and store food (Fibrous roots and taproots) • Stems – support the plant, transport food and water, and store food • Leaves - Leaves function as the site of food production for plants. • Seed – the plant structure that contains a young plant inside a protective covering • Thorns – are sharp outgrowths from the stems of plants that function in defending the plant from being eaten by some animals. • Poisons – chemical substances specifically designed to discourage animals from eating them. • Camouflage – defense mechanism that helps disguise or hide the plant
Plant Kingdom: Plants have structures for Defense • Plants have structures for defense that protect them from threats and without these defenses they would die. • For example, Natural Defenses that plants have developed over time are thorns or poisons.
Crown of Thorns http://www.blankees.com/house/plants/crown.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rose Rose Stem http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spine_(biology) Plant Kingdom: Plants have structures for Defense • Thorns – are sharpoutgrowths from the stems of plants that function in defending the plant from being eaten by some animals.
Poison Ivy Poison Sumac Poison Oak http://poisonivy.aesir.com/img/pictures/pi/index.php Plant Kingdom: Plants have structures for Defense: Poisons • Plants have important chemical substances specifically designed to discourage animals from eating them. • Some of these substances simply discourage a plant’s predator by making the plant foul-tasting. • Some substances can sicken or even kill the predator • In some cases the substances keep away predators only until the plant has matured • then the poison level decreases so that the fruit can be eaten and the seeds dispersed. • Examples of some poisonous plants include poisonivy, poison oak, and poison sumac.
Three main parts of plants: roots, stems, and leaves (1:10) Plant Kingdom: Plants have structures for Survival • Parts of the flowering plant that functions for survival include: leaves, stems, and roots. ***View Videos from Video Resources***