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Basic Electrical Circuits & Machines (EE-107). Course Teacher Shaheena Noor Assistant Professor Computer Engineering Department Sir Syed University of Engineering & Technology. VOLTAGE AND CURRENT LAWS.

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## Basic Electrical Circuits & Machines (EE-107)

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**Basic Electrical Circuits & Machines (EE-107)**Course Teacher ShaheenaNoor Assistant Professor Computer Engineering Department Sir Syed University of Engineering & Technology.**VOLTAGE AND CURRENT LAWS**In this chapter, we discuss the behavior of electric circuits. Two simple laws, Kirchhoff’s Current law and Kirchhoff’s voltage law form the foundation for circuit analysis procedure.**Voltage and Current Laws**• Circuits • Series Circuit • Parallel Circuit**Series Circuits**“Two components are connected in series if they have exactly one common terminal and if no other component has a terminal that shares that common connection.” Figure (a) Figure (b)**Series Circuits**• A series path is one in which every component in the path is in series with another component. Analysis of Series Circuit: • Important property is that the current is the same in every series-connected component. • Another fact is its total resistance. • Total resistance is the sum of all the series-connected resistances. RT or Req = R1 + R2 + R3 + . . . • When a voltage source is connected in series circuit, the total current produced by that source is from Ohm’s Law.**Series Circuits**• Example # 01: Let R1 = 2Ω; R2 = 1 Ω; V = 5Volts; I = ? • Example # 02: Find I and voltage across each resistor.**Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law (KVL):**It states that “ The algebraic sum of the voltages around any closed path is zero.” V1 + V2 + V3 + . . . . . . . + VN = 0 OR • “ The sum of the voltage drops around any closed loop equals the sum of the voltage rises around the loop.”**Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law (KVL):**• Example 3.2 Find vx and i .**Drill Problem 3.2 ( page 34)**Determine i and vx for the figure given below.**Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law (KVL):**• Other Examples:**Drill Problem 3.4 (page 37)**• In the circuit, vs1 = 120V, vs2 = 30V, R1 = 30Ω and R2 = 15Ω. Compute the power absorbed by each element.**For Dependent Sources:**Drill Problem 3.5 (page 38) • In the Circuit , find the Power absorbed by each of the five elements in the circuit.**Drill Problem 3.9 ( page 45)**• Determine i in the given circuit.**Open Circuit**• Break in a circuit path. • No current can flow through an open. • Since no current can flow through it, an open circuit has an infinite resistance (R = ∞) I = V/R = ? • Important: It is a common error that since the current in an open circuit is zero, the voltage across the open must also be zero.**For Example:**What is the voltage ‘V’ across the switch terminal when the switch is open.**Voltage Divider Rule (VDR)**I = ? V1 = ? V2 = ? V1 V2**For Example:**• Use VDR to find V200Ω and V150 Ω. • Verify this using KVL**Parallel Circuits:**• Two components are connected in parallel when they have 2 common terminal. • For Example:**Parallel Circuits:**Analysis of Parallel Circuits: • Important property of parallel circuit is that every parallel-connected component has the same voltage across it.**For Example:**• Find the current in each resistor.**Parallel Circuits:**• Resistance in Parallel: • For 2 resistors (only)**Kirchhoff’s Current Law (KCL):**It states that: • “ The algebraic sum of the current entering any node is zero” OR • “The sum of all currents entering a junction or any portion of a circuit equals the sum of all currents leaving the same.”**iA iB**iD ic**Example**• Find the current in the 150Ω resistor**Q-5 (a) (page 55)**• Find ix in each of the circuits.**Q6 (page 55)**• Find ix; if iY = 2A and iZ = 0A • Find iY; if iX = 2A and iZ = 2iYA 5A iX 3A iZ iY**Current Division Rule (CDR):**• Consider 2 parallel resistor • Note: Parallel resistors must be branches between the same pairs of nodes.**Example:**• Find I1 and I2 using the current divider rule. • Verify the result using KCL**Example 3.13 (Page 52)**• Find current across 3Ω resistor using CDR.**Short Circuit**• A short circuit is a path of zero resistance. • A component is said to be short-circuited when there is a short circuit connected in parallel with it.

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