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Airport Operations

Airport Operations

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Airport Operations

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  1. AF 202 Airport Operations

  2. Objectives • Review • Airport layout and visual aids • Airport operations • Interception Procedures

  3. Airport Layouts and Visual Aids

  4. Taxiway Markings • Yellow centerline • Double yellow edge marking when edge is not easily defined • Double dashed yellow edge marking when adjoining pavement is intended for aircraft (i.e. ramp)

  5. Taxiway Markings • Enhanced Centerline • No more than 150 feet from hold short line

  6. Hold Short • Runway Hold Short Line • ILS Hold Short Line

  7. Hold Short • Hold short ofrunway approach

  8. Taxiway Lighting • Edge Lights – Steady Blue • Centerline Lights – Steady Green • Clearance Bar Lights – 3 Steady Yellow • Can be located at taxiway Intersections

  9. Taxiway Lighting • Runway Guard Lights – Yellow • Alternating lights next to taxiway • Row of in ground lights • Stop Bar Lights – Steady Red • Used in low visibility • In pavement row of lights • Used to confirm ATC clearance

  10. Runway Markings • Runway Designators • Printed magnetic direction • ‘L’ – Left ‘R’ – Right ‘C’ – Center • Runway Centerline • Runway Aiming point • 2 broad stripes 1000 ft from threshold

  11. Runway Markings • Touchdown Zone Markers • Marked every 500 feet • Threshold Markers • 8 lines or dependent on runway width

  12. Runway Markings • Types of Runways

  13. Runway Markings • Visual and Non-Precision

  14. Runway Markings • Precision Runway

  15. Runway Markings • Relocated Threshold • Can NOT land ortakeoff

  16. Runway Markings • Displaced Threshold • Can takeoff • Can NOT land

  17. Runway Markings • Blast Pad

  18. Runway Markings • Combo Deal

  19. Runway Markings • Closed

  20. Runway Lighting • Runway Centerline (RCLS) – White • Touchdown Zone (TDZL) – White • 2 rows • 100 feet past threshold to 3,000 feet • Taxiway Lead Off/On – Alternating green and yellow

  21. Runway Lighting • Land and Hold Short – Flashing white • Row of lights • Runway End Identifier (REIL) – Flashing white • Runway Edge – White, yellow, red, green • Yellow is the last 2,000 ft or half (shortest) • Red on end of runway, green on approach

  22. Runway Lighting • Runway Lighting Intensity • HIRL – High Intensity Runway Lighting • MIRL – Medium Intensity Runway Lighting • LIRL – Low Intensity Runway Lighting

  23. Runway Lighting • ApproachLights

  24. Runway Lights (VASI variations)

  25. Runway Lighting • PAPI and tri-colored VASI

  26. Runway Lighting • Runway Status Light (RWSL) • Runway Entrance Lights • Takeoff Hold Lights • Final Approach Runway Occupancy signal • Precision Approach Path Indicator (PAPI) flashes if runway is occupied

  27. Runway Lighting

  28. Other Markings • Runway Holding Position • Holding Position (Beginning of Runway)

  29. Other Markings • Holding Position for Approach Area • ILS Holding Area

  30. Other Markings • Position (Location) markings • Direction (Destination) Markings

  31. Other Markings • Runway Distance Remaining • Ground Receiver Checkpoint

  32. Other Markings

  33. Airport Beacons • White/Green – Civilian Airport • White/Yellow – Seaport • White/White/Green – Military • White/Yellow/Green - Heliport

  34. Airport Operations

  35. Land And Hold Short • Controller can clear a pilot for LAHSO when there is an intersecting runway • Pilot must determine if there is enough Available Runway Distance • Pilot in Command has final authority to accept clearance (cannot be forced)

  36. LAHSO – AF/D

  37. Wake Turbulence • Large Aircraft generate large wingtip vortices • Vortex generation is governed by weight, speed and shape of wing • Heavy, slow, and clean configuration gives the greatest vortex strength

  38. Wake Turbulence • Small aircraft must be separated from large and heavy aircraft by 3 minutes • 3 minute separate rule does not apply • Parallel runway father than 2500 ft • When departure point is within 500 ft • When PIC waivers the rule • 3 minute rule cannot be waived if behind a heavy aircraft

  39. Wake Turbulence • Land/Takeoff before the rotation point of an airplane that just took off • Land/Takeoff after the touchdown point of an airplane that just landed

  40. Unexpected Maneuvers • ATC services is based on observed or known traffic • Controllers establish sequence and spacing • Controllers can anticipate minor maneuvers like ‘S’ turns • Controllers cannot anticipate 360 turns • Must request or be asked by ATC

  41. Intersection Takeoffs • Pilots are expected to taxi to the beginning of the runway • Pilot can request intersection takeoff

  42. ATC Light Signals

  43. Special VFR • Must be done in controlled airspace only • Clearance must be obtained from ATC when in class B, C, D airports • Clearance must be obtained from nearest tower, FSS, or center when in class E airport

  44. Special VFR • Must be requested by pilot • Weather Requirements • Visibility of at least 1 statute mile • Remain clear of clouds • At night • Pilot and aircraft must be IFR certified

  45. Surveillance Environment • Surveillance is available at class B, C and D TRSA (Terminal Radar Service Area) • Initial contact is made with approach control • Altitude should be reported along with position

  46. Surveillance Environment • Upon departing, initial contact is often made with Clearance Delivery • Type aircraft, location on field, course heading, requested altitude, ATIS. • Ground is simply contacted for taxi clearance • After tower you will be transferred to departure

  47. Surveillance Environment • A Mode C transponder is required for most surveillance environments • Mode C is altitude encoding which means the controller can see your altitude • Why is the altitude off in the 172R transponder?

  48. Surveillance Environment

  49. Surveillance Equipment • Radar • Radio waves bounce off targets • Has limitations and so the pilot is still required to ‘see and avoid’ • Waves can be bent by temperature inversions • Line of sight only • Low altitude aircraft are harder to see