Frame of Reference " Police Presence in Educational Establishments" Training of School Boards and Police Force Respondents
Thanks! For their research, For their work, For their writings, which we used in the preparation and realization of the contents of our "teacher training" in the frame of reference "Police Presence in Educational Establishments".
Thanks! To the Service régional de soutien – behavioral problems (Montréal Island); To the Chambre de la jeunesse; To the Service de police de la communauté urbaine de Montréal (January to April 2001); And, to those who participated and completed their training in the frame of reference during the training sessions in crime prevention offered by theministère de la sécurité publique (November 17, 2004).
Daily Sequence • Welcoming and introduction of the participants • Members of the work committee and trainers • Objectives • Mission of the two organizations • Police presence in educational establishments 3 contexts * Context of prevention and community relations– brief overview * Context of emergency * Context of investigation - Reflections on the educational sector - Scenarios and teamwork • Conclusion • Assessment – discussion
Training Objectives • Share a common understanding of the frame of reference; • Suggest and discuss means and approaches proposed within the frame of reference; • Invite the participants to use this tool to prepare or revise their action plan, seeking dialogue between the partners.
Respective mission of the two organizations A - The school environment: • Primary or secondary education • Professional training services or adult education B - The police forces
A - The school environment • Due to its triple mission to educate, socialize and qualify, the educational establishment has an important role to play in the development of attitudes and responsible social behavior in students, both youth and adults. • A preventive approach with a focus on open mindedness as well as an emphasis on respect, collaboration and sharing is the best means. • With the aim of developing a global approach, joint actions using contribution by various partners are encouraged, in order to offer a continuous service and to thus promote the development of youth in a healthy and secure context.
A - The school environment (cont’d) • The school environment considers the parents as preferred partners because they have the primary responsibility for the education and development of their children. • The school environment considers, above all, the police force as one of the partners who contribute to the education in rights and responsibilities which is offered to the students, both youth and adults, which includes interventions of preventive and corrective nature. • The success of this approach depends on the capacity for dialogue of all participants in the educational environment and the desire for collaboration by the students and their parents.
B - The police forces • Ensure the enforcement of laws; • Promote the development of attitudes, skills and techniques enabling the resolution of conflicts in a peaceful way and to intervene in a relevant way towards aggressive behavior; • Inform and create awareness of the variety and complexity of problems related to violence; • Provide the means to students to assist them to prevent acts of violence; • Establish a link between the partners in order to find lasting community solutions to the various real life problems experienced in the school environment;
B - Police forces (cont’d) • Act as a resource person and guide the students and parents towards specialists or appropriate organizations; • Collaborate in initiating community activities (group outings, sporting activities or others); • Jointly respond to the defined needs (plan projects with the milieu, coordinate common activities); • Participate in common actions in association with the school team and the students (development and implementation of programs, intervention strategies, projects); • Participate, when necessary, in individual measures to respond to the specific needs of a student.
Whether or not to call the police? • School authorities have the authority to decide whether or not to place the call. • This authority is not absolute. • Depending on the occurrence in question, the fact of not having exercised this authority may cause them to be held at fault.
Two questions? • When should the management of the school request the police service to intervene? • When and how should the police service intervene in the school?
Frame of reference"Police presence in educational establishments" Origin of the document
Frame of reference"Police presence in educational establishments" • Launch Date May 1999 Update: Nov. 2004 to date Why this update…
Frame of reference"Police presence in educational establishments" • Nature of the document Frame of reference Working tool to guide organizations and schools in theirinterventions when facing violence.
WHY UPDATE THE FRAME OF REFERENCE? Legislative Amendments • The former "Young Offenders Act"replaced by "Youth Criminal Justice Act"; • "Police Act"modified with an emphasis on police behavior " Police Act "(2001); • Amendments to the "Public Education Act".
WHY UPDATE THE FRAME OF REFERENCE? New practices or ministerial policies • Policy on the approach to community-based policing; • Policy concerning the prevention of criminal activity; • New inter-ministerial agreement relative to children who are victims of sexual abuse, physical mistreatment or a lack of care which endangers their physical well-being. From which arises an obligation of juridical consistency and an update to the frame of reference.
Composition of the Panel • Association des cadres scolaires du Québec (ACSQ) • Association des centres jeunesse du Québec • Association des CLSC et des CHSLD du Québec • Association des directeurs de police du Québec (ADPQ) • Association des directeurs généraux des commissions scolaires du Québec (ADIGECS) • Association québécoise du personnel de direction des écoles (AQPDE) • Centrale des syndicats du Québec (CSQ) • Fédération des comités de parents du Québec (FCPQ) • Fédération des commissions scolaires du Québec (FCSQ) • Fédération québécoise des directeurs et directrices d’établissement d’enseignement (FQDE) • Ministère de l’Éducation, du Loisir et du Sport du Québec (MELS) • Ministère de la Justice du Québec • Ministère de la Santé et des Services sociaux du Québec • Ministère de la Sécurité publique du Québec • Regroupement des maisons de jeunes du Québec • Sûreté du Québec
General objectives of the frame of reference • Invite the educational establishments to use the frame of reference to agree with the police forces on a draft agreement and an action plan which encourages dialogue amongst all the partners of the milieu, and this, in respect of the educational project and the school's plan for success or, in the case of an educational centre, its directions, its objectives and its plan of success. • Provide educational establishments and police with a tool enabling them to intervene in an appropriate manner and with respect to the rights of the students, whether it is in the context of prevention and community relations, emergency, arrest or investigation. • Invite the management of the educational establishments and police officers to develop and regularly maintain cooperation and communication links and to foresee mechanisms favoring the continuity of this action from year to year. • Suggest to police officers and educational establishments the means by which the latter remain places of education where the safety and integrity of students, youth and adults, are protected.
Three contexts • Prevention and community relations: an overview • Emergency: awareness and scenario • Investigation: considerations and scenarios
Section 1 "Police Presence in Educational Establishments" Context of prevention and communityrelations
Context of prevention and communityrelations Targetted objectives: • Establish a rapport between the police service, the school personnel and students. • Implementation of preventive measures in collaboration with all the parties: efforts agreed upon by both sides.
Context of prevention and communityrelations • Dialogue around a common definition of the message to be passed on to the students / consensus on values to be promoted; • Implementation of prevention program: different steps to follow; • The prevention programs could notably address problems related to: - violence - alcohol and drugs - intimidation and bullying - harrassment - vandalism - gangs - sexual abuse - suicide - highway safety
Context of prevention Dialogue steps as follows: • Establish a diagnosis in matters of criminal activity and security; • Develop an action plan for each problematic judged to be a priority; • Implement the interventions foreseen in the action plan; • Assess the processes and the results of the interventions achieved.
Section 2 " Police Presence in Educational Establishments" Context of an emergency
Context of an emergency Objectives: • Encourage the school board, its educational establishments and the police to provide a procedure to be followed in the event of an emergency situation requiring a police presence. • Encourage the school board and its educational establishments to set up mechanisms promoting disclosure to the management of an educational establishment or to a staff member of any act capable of threatening the safety of individuals or seriously disrupting the functioning of the establishment, with the purpose of allowing a rapid and effective intervention. Any disclosure of information has to be done in respect of the rules of confidentiality.
Context of an emergency Guidelinesfor the educational establishment: • Promptly report the problem to management; • Request assistance from a police force; • Place a separate sheet on file; • Advise the parents.
Context of an emergency Guidelinesfor the policeforce • Advise management before intervening or as soon as possible Guidelines for both • Plan for feedback • Agree upon a communication strategy Remember: have an emergency preparedness plan
In an emergency context Some steps to take: • Sensitize school representatives on emergency situations; • Inform them that these occurrences could happen in their schools; • Know the operations of the police force(s) within the territory / school boards in relation to the services offered in the case of an emergency; • Whenever possible, attempt to prevent the occurrence of certain violent events in schools; • Encourage the schools to prepare in advance any necessary materials which will be used during an emergency situation, and to set up a procedure clarifying the roles and responsibilities of each of the partners when an emergency situation arises; • Identify emergency situations which may arise in a school.
Context of an emergency Some steps to take: • before; • during; • after.
1 - Make school representatives aware of an emergency • Definitions of an emergency … necessity to react quickly … without delay … in all haste … which have to be dealt with immediately … urgent … important
1 - Make school representatives aware of an emergency(cont’d) • School administrators are continuously confronted with all types of violent occurrences in their schools. These are usually handled by school principals and demand an immediate intervention. Some of these violent occurrences do not always require a police intervention (example: fighting between students). • However, when a life is in danger or when an individual constitutes a danger to the safety of another person, management must immediately request the assistance of the police. In case of doubt, it is always possible to request advice from the police officers and thus have recourse to their expertise.
1 - Make school representatives aware of an emergency(cont’d) • School representatives should note that tragic events such as the fatalities in Littleton, Colorado (12 students and 1 teacher killed), in Jonesboro, Arkansas (4 students and 1 teacher killed), Olivehust, Californie (4 students killed) and in Dublande, Scotland (15 children attending kindergarten and 1 teacher killed), can sadly occur even here in Québec.
1 - Make school representatives aware of an emergency(cont’d) • Here is a partial list of some emergencies which may arise in a school environment and which would require police assistance: • Mad gunman (fusillade…); • Hostage taking (barricaded person…); • Threats by a violent individual; • Presence of weapons in the school; • Kidnapping of a child (run away…); • Bomb threat (suspicious package, presence of explosives…); • Crowd movement (student demonstration…). It goes without saying, that if such events occur in a school, a call to 9-1-1 would be required without delay.
2 – Services offered by the police force in your area (to be completed locally) 2.1 How to communicate with the policeservice 2.1.1 Dial 9-1-1 For approximately 20 years, cities (municipalities) and police forces have been equipped with a call reception system which is amongst the best in the world. This call centre enables directing, with the briefest of delay, of a distress call to the most appropriate service. • Health emergency; • Fire prevention service; • Police service; • Hydro-Québec; • Others.
2 – Services offered by the police force in your area (cont’d) 2.1 How to communicate with the policeservice • 9-1-1 is reserved for EMERGENCY calls. Personnel at 9-1-1 have received specific training. They regularly direct numerous calls towards the various services (police, firefighters, ambulance,…). In a few seconds, the call is analyzed and assessed, based on a priority scale. • 2.1.2 All other emergency numbers provided by your local police force(s).
2 – Services offered by the police force in your area (cont’d) 2.2 Handling of an emergency call (9-1-1) 2.2.1 The call • Within seconds, an employee receives the call at the 9-1-1 centre. He/she refers the call to the appropriate service, including the analysis section of the police service. • From the onset of this analysis, a request for dispatching is completed, and an officer assigns a police vehicle. • The police officers may have already been advised of the situation and be at the scene of the occurrence, while the caller is still in communication with the analyst. • It is even possible, for the personnel at 9-1-1-, to connect the call directly to the police officers arriving at the site of the intervention.
2 – Services offered by the police force in your area (cont’d) 2.2.2 At the scene • The first police officers arriving at the scene have the mandate to analyze the situation (type of threat, danger, seriousness,…). To do this, they must meet a representative of the school who will describe the layout in detail and who will describe the recent occurrences. • At this stage, the school representatives should supply all pertinent and necessary information which they have at their disposal, in order that the police intervention may be as efficient and adequate as possible. The intervention method chosen by the police (example: armed or unarmed intervention, anti-riot squad, SWAT, etc.) will be dictated by the nature and circumstances of the occurrence. It is therefore impossible to anticipate in advance the details of this policing operation.
2 – Services offered by the police force in your area (cont’d) 2.2.2 At the scene (cont’d) In this context, the responsibilities of the police are the following: • Identify the source of the danger and where the occurrence is taking place; • Isolate the suspect (or the object); • Control the scene (supervise the location where the action is); • Evacuate the victims; • Arrest the suspect (or have the suspect surrender).
2 – Services offered by the police force in your area (cont’d) 2.2.3 The supervisor • A supervisor will quickly arrive at the scene and should coordinate the occurrence. • The supervisor is the leader. He is the commander at the scene and must control it as well as bring the evacuation to a satisfactory ending. He may be replaced by the detachment commander or the officer in charge of major crimes. • The following information will be required by the supervisor: An adequate and updated intervention plan; Detailed plans of the building and its points of access (blueprints); A predetermined gathering place (refuge); The applicable evacuation procedure for this school.
3 – Considerations to prevent certain emergencies 3.1 Multisectorplanning • Tight links must be woven between school management and police officers, to prevent certain violent occurrences which could arise in the school environment. As partners, school representatives and police forces should have the concern of forming a permanent team whose function would be to intervene in emergency situations. • Together, they should develop a communication plan, determine roles and responsibilities for each party, identify the resource persons, see that these persons receive particular training, and this, on an annual basis.
3 – Considerations to prevent certain emergencies 3.1 Multi-sectorplanning (cont’d) • Finally, they may implement a detailed intervention procedure, concerning emergency situations. Considering the complexity of school and police structures, it would be desirable that organizational charts containing names and duties of those in charge at the two bodies (school board and police force) be distributed at the schools and police force, in order that the persons in authority be easily recognized and that they may be informed from the beginning of an emergency event in a school.
3 – Considerations to prevent certain emergencies 3.2 Access control • The school should be a secure place, favorable to concentration and learning. Access control to the establishments must be the forethought of school authorities. It is important to know who circulates in the school, in the same manner as in a private place of residence. • During entry by the students, security at accesses must be foremost. During school hours, there should only be one possible access for students and school staff. Furthermore, access to the school by a third party, should be tightly controlled (bell, window allowing those inside to see the individual, a voice system, doors only able to be opened from the inside, etc.).
3 – Considerations to prevent certain emergencies 3.3 Intruders • It is unacceptable that a person can walk into a school, without permission. All staff members and students have the right and the duty to inform the principal of the presence of an outsider in their establishment. In addition, it is possible to revoke an earlier access permission granted to somebody, and to expel them as an intruder. • To this effect, in the Yvon Vallée vs. The Queen case, (1994) R.J.Q. 330, Madame Judge Mailhot of the Appeal Court asserted that: "In spite of the fact that a person enters legally into a building opened to the public as as an invitee or customer, he may be considered as an intruder, if he refuses to leave the building, when he is asked to do so because he is an undesirable person."
3 – Considerations to prevent certain emergencies 3.3 Intruders (cont’d) • The police service can support a principal who asks for assistance to evict an individual who refuses to leave the school. The officers evict the intruder while considering his physical and psychological state. The officers will arrive at the school and will ask the principal to sign an eviction request form . • This form enables the peace officers to resort to necessary force to evict the individual, in a legal manner. The police officers should first ensure that the intruder is informed by the person in charge at the school, that he is no longer welcome. This action validates the legality of the eviction request. They will also consider the physical and psychological state of the individual in question. • School authorities are totally at liberty to inform the unwanted individuals, by way of a formal demand or an official letter, that their presence is no longer permitted at the school (example: parent with an inappropriate or aggressive behavior).
3 – Considerations to prevent certain emergencies 3.4 Policy in matters of prevention and handling of violent incidents • Intervenors in the school environment would have an interest to adopt, review or publish a clear policy dealing with the prevention and handling of violent incidents and add to it the elements discussed on emergency measures, if this is not already done. • The school’s code of conduct could also benefit from some of these elements. Several school boards implement a zero tolerance policy in matters of violence at school and widely distribute it to students, staff members and parents.
3 – Considerations to prevent certain emergencies 3.5 Notification • School authorities equally have an interest in encouraging students and employees to report all forms of violence in the school. • To encourage notification, they could implement such programs as info-crime and protect the confidentiality of those who make the disclosure, in order to create a climate of confidence in the environment. • They should also offer support to victims of acts of violence and assure them of particular assistance.
4 – Preparation of necessary material by the school in case of an emergency and identification of the roles and responsibilities of each of the partners 4.1 Intervention plan • This intervention plan must be completed in advance by the school principal and given to the police authorities, in order that the information contained therein may form part of the central files of the police force. • It should be updated regularly, to include all changes. This computerized document will enable rapid contact with those in charge at the school, to know the particularities of the location involved in the emergency situation, as well as to identify the clientele of the school. Police authorities may thus ensure a more secure perimeter around the school.
4 – Preparation of necessary material by the school in case of an emergency and identification of the roles and responsibilities of each of the partners 4.2 Blueprints of the building. • These plans are drawn by the architects of the school board and updated on a regular basis, offering a complete visage of the entire site, as well as all accesses to the building. • They should be filed in a secure location (example: a metal box at the entry to the building) and be easily accessible to police officers from the exterior of the building, upon their arrival at the school.
4 – Preparation of necessary material by the school in case of an emergency and identification of the roles and responsibilities of each of the partners 4.3 Place of assembly • All school personnel and all students should be able to rapidly find refuge when an emergency situation arises in a school establishment. • A place of assembly should therefore be determined in advance by the school authorities. This location will be known by all school personnel, by the students and by their parents, who can be directed there in case of an emergency. • The school authorities will not choose the recreation yard, but rather a safe building situated close to the school.