Grammar • The present perfect tense • The present perfect continuous tense • Present perfect simple vs. Present perfect continuous tense • Practice exercises.
Present perfect tense Usage: The present perfect tense puts emphasis on the result Ex: She has written five letters. expresses an action that is still going on. Ex: School has not started yet. expresses an action that stopped recently Ex: She has cooked dinner. expresses a finished action that has an influence on the present Ex: I have lost my key. expresses an action that has taken place once, never or several times before the moment of speaking Ex: I have never been to Australia.
Form of present perfect: For irregular verbs, use the participle form (see list of irregular verbs, 3rd column). For regular verbs, just add “ed”.
The adverbs are frequently used in the present perfect: • For: When talking about the length of time (duration), we use the present perfect with for + a period of time. Ex: I have worked here for five years. She has lived here for twenty years. They have been married for six months. • Since: When talking about a starting point, we use the present perfect with since + a point in time. Ex: I have lived here since 1998. They have been married since June. We have been at this school since last year. • adverbs (ever, never, already, yet, still) 'Ever' and 'never' are always placed before the past participle. Ex: Has she ever met someone famous? I have never visited London. I’ve never been so sick. Already, yet and still: It can be placed before the main verb (past participle) or at the end of the sentence.
Present perfect continuous USAGE: The present perfect continuous tense • puts emphasis on the duration or course of an action (not the result) Example: She has been writing for two hours. • action that recently stopped or is still going on Example: I have been living here since 2001. • finished action that influenced the present Example: I have been working all afternoon.
Form of present perfect continuous: Signal Words of Present Perfect Progressive: all day, for 4 years, since 1993, how long?, the whole week
Reminder: Verbs with stative meanings are not used in the progressive. The present perfect, NOT the present perfect continuous, is used with stative verbs to describe the duration of a state that began in the past and continue to the present. Ex: I have known Alice since he was a child. Incorrect: I have been knowing Alice since he was a child.
Reminder • We can use both the present perfect simple and the present perfect continuous to describe an activity that started in the past and continues up to the present and possibly into the future. Ex: They have been studying English for three years. They’ve studied English for three years. • We can use the present perfect simple and the present perfect continuous withlatelyandrecently. Ex: I’ve been working hard lately. I’ve done a lot of work lately.
EXERCISES • Present perfect simple. • Present perfect continuous. • Present perfect simple and present perfect continuous.
Put the verbs into the correct form (present perfect simple). • Since classes began, I (have, not)_____ much free time. I (have)____ several big tests to study for. • The science of medicine (advance)______ a great deal in the 19th century. • We (have)_____ three major snowstorms so far this winter. I wonder how many more we will have. • I (write)______ them three times, but I haven’t received a reply. • The telephone (ring)_________ four times in the last hours, and each time it has been for my office mate. • A: What are you going to order for dinner? B: Well, I (have, never)________ vegeterian pizza, so I think I’ll order that. • Bill (be)_________ here since 22nd. • So far this week, I (have)_________ two tests and a quiz. • Alex is an artist. He (draw)______ many beautiful pictures in his lifetime. • Fatima (see, never)_________ snow in her entire lifetime.
Put the verbs into the correct form (present perfect progressive). • He (work)___________ in this company since 1985. • I (wait)_____ for you since two o'clock. • Mary (live)_________ in Germany since 1992. • Why is he so tired? He (play)_____ tennis for five hours. • How long (learn / you)______ English? • We (look for)_______ the motorway for more than an hour. • I (live)____________ without electricity for two weeks. • The film (run / not)_________ for ten minutes yet, but there's a commercial break already. • How long (work / she)_________ in the garden? • She (not / be)_________ in the garden for more than an hour.
Put the verbs into the correct tense. (present perfect simple or present perfect progressive) • I (play)_________ football for five years. • My team (win / only)_________ two matches so far. • The others (be / always)________ better. • Are we not there yet? We (walk)________ for hours. • But we (cover / only)__________ an area of five miles so far. • I (finish/just)_______ my homework. • I (work)________ on this essay since two o'clock. • Jane (go out)______ with Bob for seven years. • Martin (date)________ three girls this week. • How long (wait / you)_________ for us?
Listen to the conversation between an interview and Lennart Dahlgren, and complete extracts 1-4 • Mr. Dahlgren, IKEA__________ in Russia for several years, and you arrived at the start. How long_____ in Russia? I______ since 1998. That’s when IKEA_________ operations in Russia. • How many stores_______ ? We______ five stores so far, and we_______ several large shopping malls in the last few years. • Consumer demand________ steadily since we_____ the first store. • We________ the percentage of our global supply that comes from Russia for a number of years. We_____ several factories throughout Russia – near St Petersburg, Moscow, and Karelia.
Listen to the second part of the interview and complete extracts 1 and 2. • But bureaucratic problems________ fewer recently. For example, the Government _____ the number of licences that are needed for a company to set up. • However, we_____ a number of things in the time we______ here. We___ management training programmes to help new Russian entrepreneurs. We_____ to show how a modern company has to work to survive in the international market.