SHORT STORY ELEMENTSMrs. Karen ThorntonAlexander High School Most Dangerous Game Scarlet Ibis Through the Tunnel Pancakes
Short Story defined: A short story is a narrative which can be read in one sitting. Can you draw the elements of a plot chart?
Point of View • First person point of view is from the viewpoint of someone in the story. The narrator is in the story itself and cannot reveal the thoughts of others. The narrator reveals his own thoughts, motivations and actions in relationship to the other characters in the story. There is only one point of view; the story is skewed according to the narrator’s opinion.
Second Person POV Second person is from the viewpoint of the reader. The writer pulls the reader into the story or essay by addressing the reader by using the word “you.” For our purposes here, do not write in second person unless the writing is technical (informational), such as directions or instructions.
Third Person is from the view point of an outsider. • 3rd person Limited: The narrator is an outsider who sees into the mind of usually one of the characters. The narrator is limited in that he does not know all. • 3rd person Omniscient: The narrator is an “all knowing” outsider who enters the minds of more than one or several characters.
3rd Person Objective Narrator does not share the thoughts and feelings of any of the characters. No Inside Information
POINTS of VIEW I climbed a mountain. Breathtaking is the only word I can find that accurately describes what I saw at the top. I think my fellow hikers were just as enamored. You go to the bottom of a mountain with all the necessary supplies. Then you hike until you get to the top. Enjoy! April and Mary trudged to the top of the high mountain. April got so tired and hungry that she did not enjoy the exercise, but Mary shouted with glee when she got to the top because she was enamored with the view. She thought, who cares if I am tired and hungry? I can see wonder all around me. It was definitely worth the pain!
Inferencing • To find a symbol, theme, or underlying message, students should look for: 1. Curiosities: what was odd in the story? What did not seem to fit or left you with a question? Why would a writer write about a cat with two different colored eyes?
2. Repetition/Patterns What words, colors, ideas, pictures, names, sounds, objects are repeated (these are called motifs). What is the purpose of the repetition? Is there a specific pattern? What might it mean?
3. Opposites What opposites (antithesis) did you notice? Why did the author juxtapose two opposite ideas, colors, places, goals, etc…?
SYMBOL Symbolism is used to attach more than the literal meaning of a story. A symbol is a person or object which has a literal meaning, but also another meaning. Examples: The Scarlet Ibis was not just a red bird, but also… Red was not just a color, but… The tunnel in “Through the Tunnel” was not just a tunnel, but also… The animals in Animal Farm were not just animals… The black spot from Treasure Island was not just a black wooden piece, but… Jerry’s mom’s arm was not just an arm Can you think of some universal symbols?
Tone and MoodTone is the attitude of the writer/speaker toward the subject.Tone is an adjective. When thinking about tone, think of how the author is feeling as he writes it. If he were telling it out loud, what would his tone of voice be? Angry? Scared? Sarcastic? Bitter? Remorseful? Carefree? In a story, we can reference the tone of different characters as they speak, or we can discuss the tone of the narrator. Ask the question: How does the speaker feel? Your answer is the tone. How does the narrator of “The Scarlet Ibis” feel toward what happened in his life? How does Amy Tan feel about what happened in “Fish Cheeks?” How is the tone (represents Amy Tan as she wrote the story) in her story different from the mood (represents how Amy felt in the story)? How does Tim O’ Brien feel in writing his story “Ambush?” Tone is remorse, regret, guilt What is the tone of “The Bouquet?” What is the tone of “The Sniper?” What attitude did Jill have in “Pancakes?”? Tone is sarcastic, humorous, prideful
MOOD • Mood is the state of mind of thereader, generally established with a description of the environment • What is the mood of the “Most Dangerous Game,” as opposed to the mood of “The Sniper?” • What is the mood of “Pancakes?” • Are the mood and the tone the same thing? Can you think of a story in which they are different?
TONEvideo clip • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MXeINWQ5VHM&feature=related&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1
THEME The theme is the lesson or overall message that drives the plot in a story. The literature will include a general truth about life that is inferred—not explicitly stated by the author. Many scholars say a theme must be in sentence form. Others say it is a universal idea, word, or phrase.
Scarlet Ibis For example, one universal theme of “The Scarlet Ibis,” by James Hurst, is guilt or regret. Or in more specific sentence form, it could be said that the theme is “Guilt (or regret) is compounded as time passes.” Another theme of “The Scarlet Ibis” is pride. Or it can be said that the theme is: “Pride can lead to unintended harm to those we love.” For our purposes here, we will write a statement about the theme.
ThemeThe Most Dangerous GameThrough the Tunnel Independence, determination, rite de passage, letting go Think of a statement for each theme word or phrase regarding the short story indicated: Cruelty, man’s instinct to kill and survive, reason
“Pancakes” and “The Sniper”Create a complete idea using the universal theme Humor, perfection, self-reliance, control War, patriotism, division, impersonality, regret
Theme- The Scarlet Ibis • Think of a sentence for the following theme words for the Scarlet Ibis: Guilt, redemption, nostalgia, pride
Purpose of Dialogue • 1. Moves the plot (through communication between characters) • 2. Develops and characterizes a character • 3. Provides white spaces, which is pleasing to the eye. • 4. Integrates theme
Characterization Counts • Indirect/inferred S speech T thoughts E effects on others A actions L looks • direct
Round Character and Flat Character Flat—readers know only about one dimension, one element of the character’s personality. ROUND: Has more than one dimension. The reader knows about more than one element of his personality: