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Individual differences

Individual differences

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Individual differences

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  1. Individual differences

  2. People differ in many ways • Physical dimension, strength, interests and skills. • Individual traits may be inborn or acquired • Habits, attitudes…developed based on one’s experiences

  3. Psychologists use ability testing to study individual differences. • RELIABILITY- whet5her or not the test scores are self-consistent. It gives the same results on different occasions.

  4. VALIDITY- how well the tests come up with what they are supposed to measure and how well they predict according to an acceptable criterion. • STANDARDIZATION- is the estasblishment of uniform conditions fore administering the test to all respondents, as well as a uniform method for evaluating responses.

  5. Kinds of tests • Aptitude tests attempt to predict the success of an individual in a kind of performance not yet attained • Achievement tests measure present attainment or what the respondent has learned after the completion of training.

  6. Intelligence tests- measure intellectual ability. • |Individual differences in intelligence measured in terms of IQ show a range from feebleminded to very superior and genius.

  7. 140 and above- genius • 130-139 very superior • 120-129 superior • 110-119 bright normal • 90-109 average normal • 80-89 dull normal • 70-79 borderline • 50-69 moron EMR • 20-49 imbecile TMR • 0-19 idiot PMR

  8. Charles Spearman(1927)- intelligence is a single factor that enables problem solving. • Thurnstone (1938)- there are distinct primary abilities such as verbal, memory, numerical abilities etc. • Raymond Cattell (1963)- described intelligence as crystallized and fluid

  9. Robert Sternberg (1991)- triarchic theory • 3 major aspects • 1. componential aspect- focuses on the mental components involved in analyzing, such as the ability to think abstractly and process information effectively. This is academic intelligence

  10. 2. Experiential intelligence- ability to formulate new ideas, to combine unrelated facts or information and create new insight. • 3. Contextual aspect- emphasizes practical application to everyday living. It is the ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions.

  11. Robert Feldman(1993)- intelligence is the capacity to understand the world, think rationally and use resources effectively when faced with challenges.

  12. Mental retardation- is a deficiency present from birth, with no obvious brain damage. • IDIOTS- Profoundly Mentally Retarded (PMR) • Lowest in intelligence. They are incapable of learning to any degree. They require close supervision and care in simple habits such as eating, dressing and cleaning one self. They are severely dependent and retarded

  13. IMBECILES Trainable Mentally Retarded • Higher in intelligence than idiots. They cannot learn to read, spell or do arithmetic. They cannot be trusted to direct their own lives. They need constant supervision

  14. MORONS Educable Mentally Retarded(EMR) • Highest of the feebleminded. The highest educational level morons can complete are the first three to four grades of elementary school.

  15. Other types of mental retardation • Microcephalic- mentally defective person who has an abnormally small pointed skull and small brain • Macrocephalic- congenitally large skull and brain with associated mental deficiency

  16. Cretinism- disability due to insufficient secretion of the thyroid gland. It is a deficiency that produces intellectual and physical defects such as stunted growth, short and podgy limbs, dry and rough skin and loss of hair. Thick lips, flat nose, protruding abdomen and large tongue are observable

  17. Mongolism- Down’s syndrome- due to a disturbance in the endocrine glands. The eyes are narrow and slanting with fissured tongue, short broad fingers and flat nose. Either idiot or imbecile • Hydrocephalism- defect that produces a very large skull . All hydrocephalics are feeble-minded.

  18. Mentally gifted • Shows superior attainment throughout childhood and early adult life. • Accelerated in school • More intellectual and social interests and hobbies and by their greater qualities of leadership

  19. Inventiveness and originality • MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCE • 1. musical- skills involving music • 2. bodily kinesthetic- skills in using body movements; dancers. Athletes. Actors • 3. logical mathematical- skills in problem solving and abstract thinking

  20. 4. linguistic- skills in the production and use of languages. • 5. spatial- skills involving spatial configurations, exemplified by artists and architects • 6. interpersonal- skills in interacting with others • 7. intrapersonal- awareness of internal aspect of oneself.