Medication Administration By: Carolyn McCune RN, BSN, MSN, CRNP
Percutaneous Administration • Medications application to the skin or mucus membranes • Ointments, creams, powders, lotions, solutions into the mouth, eye, ear, nose, or vagina. Medications inhaled into the lungs • Reduced incidence of side effects but can be messy.
Creams, lotions and ointments • Creams • Lotions • Ointments • Patient teaching-Very important if patient or family administering • Always review the 6 patient rights for drug administration.
Dressings • Medicated dressings to treat wounds • Some protect
Patch Testing for Allergens • To identify sensitivity to allergens • The antigens are placed in direct contact with the skin and read in 3 and 7 days. • May vary with testing • A redness or swelling will occur if positive
Nitroglycerin Ointment • Used for relief of anginal pain • Appying: • Always wear gloves • Measure appriopriate amount • Rotate application site • Cover with plastic wrap and tape in place • Wash hands after applying • Education and teaching
Transdermal Delivery Systems • Transdermal disk-controlled release of medication. • Applying the disk • Education to patient
Medications to Mucous Membranes • Buccal tablets/Sublingual meds • Technique and Education • Eye Drops and ointments • Techniques and Education • Nose drops • Techniques and Education
Mucous Membranes Continued • Ear drops: • Infants-pull earlobe down and back under 3 years of age • Adults and over 3 years-pull up and back • Education • Nose drops and sprays • Technique and Education
Medications by Inhalation • Nebulae-sprayed into throat by nebulizer • Aerosols-use a flow of air or oxygen uder pressure to get medications into the respiratory tract. May be done by respiratory therapy. • Education • Vaginal medications(applicators, suppositories, and douches. • Technique and education
Starts Chapter 9 • Enteral meds-drugs enter directly into the GI tract • Oral, tube, rectal
Administering Meds • Unit dose(single dose) • Souffle cup • Medicine cup • dropper • Teaspoon • Oral syringe • Nipple
Enteral Administration • Enteral-into the GI tract by oral, rectal or nasograstic. Safest and most conventient • Slowest and least dependable • NG method-if unable to swallow • Rectal route: bypassing the digestive system and avoids stomach irritation.
Oral administration • Dose forms: • Capsules • Time released • Lozenges • Pills • Tablets • Emulsions • Suspensions • Syrups
Medications by Nasogastric,Gastrostomy, or JejunostomyTube • Liquid form of drug if available • Tablet form • Always flush with water
Rectal Suppositories and Enemas • Technique • Education • Review: Always use 6 medication right • Must know how to education the patient and family regarding administration of meds
Start Chapter 10 • Parenteral administration-
Parenteral administration • Route other than the enteral or GI tract • Subcutaneous • Intramuscular or • Intravenous • Onset more rapid, less dosage
Administration of medications by route other than GI tract • This will be covered in lab • You must know sites for SC and IM injections-please review prior to lab
Intradermal Route • Injected to produce a Wheal • Absorption is slow • Technique and education