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Running and Court Shoes

Running and Court Shoes

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Running and Court Shoes

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  1. Running and Court Shoes • Assignments: • Read Ch 2 of Kreighbaum & Smith • Submit 2 questions from readings for discussion • Primary functions of running shoes • Reduce excessive rearfoot pronation • Reduce take-off supination of forefoot • Reduce impact forces (first 50 ms of foot contact) • Decrease rate of vertical GRF increase • Reduce high pressure areas

  2. Shoe Structure • Outsoles (traction and durability) • Made of carbon rubber (hard) or blown rubber (soft) • May absorb shock by cutting away middle portion (Fig 2.2)

  3. Shoe structure • Midsoles (shock absorp, rearfoot and forefoot control) • EVA (compression problem), shock absorption systems (e.g., Asic’s Impact Guidance System using Gel, Nike’s Air) • Example: Asic’s cradles for stability, cushioning, and motion control

  4. Shoe structure • Uppers (foot support, keep shoe centered on foot) • Heel stabilizer units, lacing throat

  5. Anatomy of the Running shoe • Last (form around which shoe is built) Straight, modified, or Curved lasts (Fig 2.9, p 25) Construction lasts (Fig 2.10, P 26)

  6. Examples of outsole designs:

  7. Example of Double Density Midsole:

  8. Effects of Rear-foot Double Density Midsole:

  9. Effects of Rearfoot and Forefoot Double Density Midsole:

  10. Choosing the correct running shoe • “wet test” for foot type • Mobile foot – need straight last, stability features (combination or board lasted, motion control midsole) • Rigid foot – need slip lasted shoe on a curved last • In the middle – no special needs • Refer to primary functions as they apply to you

  11. Selecting shoes that fit: First, find out what type of foot you have: the Wet Test:

  12. Court Shoes • Primary differences from running shoes • Lateral stability, traction needed • Lower heel area • Lower platform of sole • shell sole (Fig 2.12, p. 27) • Sew and glue shell sole to upper • Outsoles • Herring bone tread is most common with circle pattern in middle • Outrigger on outsole • Harder, more abrasive and more durable • Midsoles - same as for running shoes • Uppers - • More durable - leather • Forefoot strap • Heel cups higher, creating deeper heel pocket • Three styles (high, mid, and low)

  13. Shell Sole:

  14. Cross- trainers • Originated by Nike in 1980’s • Court shoe in forefoot and running shoe in rearfoot

  15. Designing shoes to prevent injury (Sport Research Review,Nike, inc.) • “The primary function of an athletic shoe cushioning system is to reduce the potentially injurious effects of repeated impacts between the foot and the ground”

  16. Shoe design and injury, cont’d

  17. Aerobic Dance Injuries (Sport Research Review,Nike, inc.) • Most injuries are to instructors and involve the shin and foot

  18. Football shoes (Sport Research Review, Nike, inc.) • Change from seven ¾” cleats to fourteen ¾” cleats reduced knee injuries 50% and serious knee injuries 75-80% • Stiff insert has dramatically reduced turf toe (sprain of the plantar capsule ligament complex of the first metatarsophalangeal joint (MPJ))

  19. Sensory evaluation of shoes • Purpose: assess product attributes and preferences • Three main categories of sensory evaluation methods • Discrimination testing (use trained panels) • Is product A noticeably different from product B? • Descriptive testing (use trained panels) • What key sensory attributes characterize Products A,B,C? • Affective testing (trained panels or reps of target consumers) • What level of liking does product A generate on one or more sensory attributes? • Which product is preferred on the basis of these attributes?

  20. Sensory evaluation applied to traditional forms of product testing (Sport Research Review, Nike, inc.) • Dynamic testing • Short-term, performance-based of functionality and likeability • One to four samples at a time • Fit trials • Short-term • Mimic point-of-service purchase experience • Long-term wear testing

  21. Good websites on Running & Court Shoes • Links to shoe companies, reviews: • Runners Web • Saucony science • Runner's World • Road Runner Sports • Links to scientific websites: • Clinical biomechanics journal • Sportscience web journal