Speech and Language Disorders By: Arla Garcia
Federal & State Definitions • A speech or language impairment means a communication disorder, such as stuttering, impaired articulation, a language impairment, or a voice impairment, that adversely affects a child's educational performance.
SPEECH & LANGUAGE Speech Disorders: Language Disorders: Language-Based Learning Disabilities Preschool Language Disorders • Childhood Apraxia of Speech • Dysarthria • OrofacialMyofuntional Disorder • Speech Sound Disorders: Articulation and Phonological Processes • Stuttering • Voice
Identification Process • All students will get a screening. • A child might be identified to need further testing, diagnosis or treatment. • Student will meet with an SLP for further evaluation. • Visual examination of oral cavity and throat to examine physical structures • Articulation of speech sounds • Expressive language and spontaneous speech tests • Fluency and Voice Evaluations • Hearing test (this could be a problem) • Case History • Speech therapy • Qualification for Special Education Services
Characteristics • Noticeably behind other students in speech and/or language skills development • May have difficulties with reading or written language • Uses words and their meanings incorrectly • Unable to express ideas • Incorrect use of grammar when talking or writing • Trouble understanding word meaning • Will not initiate conversation • During verbal interaction is slow to respond • Cannot identify the use of different language
4 Major Areas Where Impairments Occur: • Articulation • Fluency • Voice • Language
Accommodations: • IEP!!! • Seat arrangements
Instructional Strategies • Focus on interactive communication. • Use active listening. • Incorporate the student’s interest into speech. • Reinforce communication attempts. • Ask open-ended appropriate questions. • Encourage reading and writing daily. • Be a good speech model • Model acceptance and understanding in the classroom. • Be patient when student is speaking, since rushing may result in frustration. • Encourage student to participate in classroom activities and discussions. • Speak clearly to the student. • Allow the nonverbal students to use augmentative communication systems.
Tips for Parents: • Be informed. • Patience is key. • Get to know your SLP • Stay positive.
Organizations to Consult With: • ASHA| American Speech-Language-Hearing Association: www.asha.org • NICD: National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders: http:www.nidcd.nih.gov/ • National Stuttering Foundation: http://stuttersfa.org/
Recommended Books • Gerald McBoing Boing by Dr. Seuss • Basghetti Spaghetti by Susanne Vettiger • Ruby Mae Has Something to Say by David Small