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Georgia’s 2 Largest Native Tribes PowerPoint Presentation
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Georgia’s 2 Largest Native Tribes

Georgia’s 2 Largest Native Tribes

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Georgia’s 2 Largest Native Tribes

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  1. Georgia’s 2 Largest Native Tribes

  2. The BIG two? • Cherokee • Creek

  3. Cherokee Considered to be the most advanced tribe because they copied the white man’s way of life • Example: Chief Vann • Example: Sequoyah’s Syllabary • Example: Cherokee Pheonix • Example: New Echota

  4. Chief Vann no notes • 2 story mansion called “Showcase of the Cherokee Nation” • Had 42 cabins on the plantation • 6 barns • 5 smokehouses • 1 gristmill • 1 blacksmith • 1 trading post • 1 still • 200 slaves • Many wives

  5. Chief Vann House • “Rich Joe” = nickname • Part Scottish and part Cherokee • President James Monroe dined with him in the house • Invited missionaries to live on his land and work with the Cherokee • Became known as a drunk and died in a brawl at the local tavern • Death at age 43 made him not only the richest Cherokee but one of the richest men in America

  6. Chief Vann’s house today.

  7. Small traditional home of a Cherokee next to Chief Vann’s house today.

  8. Chief Vann’s elaborate dining room.

  9. Sequoyah’s Syllabary • Syllabary = a group of symbols that stand for whole syllables • 12 years to create 85 symbols • The Cherokee were the first Natives to have their language in written form! • Proved that natives could communicate without using the language of the settlers.

  10. Squoyah’s Syllabary • United States gave him the first Literary Prize in America! He wore his medal for the rest of his life! He also was given $500 a year for the rest of his life from the Cherokee nation.

  11. Cherokee Phoenix • Cherokee newspaper • Elias Boudinot was the editor • Written in both English and Cherokee • Distributed to both whites and Cherokee • Biggest Accomplishment: unify the tribe from Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Alabama, and Georgia!

  12. Still in print today

  13. New Echota Cherokee Capital • Worked just like D.C.! (head of governement) • Location of the Cherokee Phoenix • Location of their government that was headed by a constitution with three branches!

  14. Various buildings still standing today at New Echota

  15. Vann’s Tavern at New Echota

  16. Printing Press at New Echota where the Cherokee Phoenix was created Supreme Court room at New Echota

  17. Creek • Lived in middle Georgia and the lower half of Georgia • Oconee River was their biggest transportation system and living location

  18. Creek • Oconee War • Chief Alexander McGillivray sent troops to burn settlements – stole livestock and captured over 200 settlers • Skirmishes continued throughout the late 1780s

  19. Creek • Chief Alexander McGillivray • 1790 went to D.C. to meet President Washington • McGillivray signed the Treaty of New York = giving up all Creek land east of the Oconee River • The US promised not to settle lands west of the Oconee River and to give the Creek tools and farm animals to start a new life.

  20. Creek • What happened to the Treaty of New York? • It was ignored by both the Creek and the Georgians.

  21. Creek • It was then that the Yazoo Land Fraud occurred and Georgia lost it’s western lands. The US promised they would move the Natives out of the state so that Georgia would have some positive from this horrible event. • The US did not begin moving the natives because they then began the War of 1812.

  22. Creek The Creek War • It all started when Tecumseh wanted to unite all Natives to fight for their land. Some Creek agreed and some did not.

  23. Creek Red Sticks White Sticks Against WAR • WANTED WAR • Fought alongside the British in the War of 1812 • After the War of 1812 they attacked Fort Mims (Alabama) and killed 400 settlers.

  24. Creek Creek War • The United States Army then began attacking Creek territories. • The last battle was at Horseshoe Bend (Alabama). 1,000 Red Sticks v 2,000 US troops led by General Andrew Jackson along with White Sticks and Cherokees. • The Red Sticks went down hard – 1814. • Many Creeks then surrendered their land to US government and moved west.

  25. Creek Chief William McIntosh • Father Scottish; mother Creek • 1825 signed Treat of Indian Springs (Butts county, GA) • US paid lower Creek chiefs $200,000 to give up the last Creek lands in Georgia to the U.S. Government

  26. Creek The Murder of Chief McIntosh • Read GA Book page 196-197 • Watch Georgia Stories

  27. Native Removal • Andrew Jackson President • Indian Removal Act 1830 passed by Congress (Jackson signed it into law)

  28. “Jackson was the first great champion of the common white man and owned more than a hundred black Americans; that Jackson dramatically expanded the United States and did so by brutally wresting vast regions of the south from Native Americans; that Jackson, in one of the boldest political strokes in history, founded the Democratic Party, yet was viewed by his enemies as an American Napoleon.” – video on Jackson by the History Channel

  29. The donkey was first used by opponents of Democratic candidate Andrew Jackson during the 1828 Presidential Race. His opponents labeled him a "jackass." In 1870, a political cartoonist used Jackson on top of a donkey to represent the Democratic Party.

  30. Removal of the Creek • Were told that they could live on GA land for five years and then sell the land and move west • Did not hold true – they were attacked • War broke out • US Army captured over 1,000 and took them to Oklahoma (Indian Territory)

  31. Removal of the Cherokee Gold was discovered in Dahlonega 1829 • Cherokee law was declared null and void • Cherokee could not speak against a white man in court • Cherokee could not own gold

  32. Ben Parks was the man who “discovered” gold in Dahlonega.

  33. Removal of the Cherokee • 1830 law said a white person could not live with the Cherokee without taking an oath of allegiance to the governor of GA • Reverend Samuel Wochester (missionary) refused to sign the oath and was arrested • After being freed he was arrested again (chained and made to walk from the mountains to Lawrenceville) • Jury found him guilty and was given 4 years of prison

  34. Removal of the Cherokee • Worchester took his case to the US Supreme Court • Chief Justice John Marshall ruled in favor of Worchester because Cherokee territory was not subject to state law • GA refused to free Worchester • President Andrew Jackson refused to enforce the US Supreme Court ruling (“John Marshall has rendered his decision, now let him enforce it”)

  35. Removal of the Cherokee • The governor eventually pardoned Worchester when he said he would stop legal action. • Worchester was told to leave the state never to return • He moved to Oklahoma with the natives and continued to minister to them

  36. Removal of the Cherokee Chief John Ross • Went to D.C. to ask for help • Took a petition signed by thousands of Cherokee to keep their land

  37. Removal of the Cherokee • 1835 Cherokee were told to come to their capital (New Echota) to sign a treaty giving up all Cherokee land • 300-500 Cherokee came out of 17,000 total Cherokee in the area (Marjor Ridge and his son John Ridge signed it and the Cherokee killed them both for it)

  38. Removal of the Cherokee Trail of Tears 1838 • 800 mile walk to Oklahoma (some did take boats along rivers) • 1/3 of the group died • New President: “the measures of the Removal have had the happiest effect…the Cherokees have EMIGRATED without apparent reluctance” – Martin Van Buren