SCIENCEScience is awesome!!!! • A way of learning about the natural world and the knowledge gained through the process.
Science in Action 2 Science Skills • Because no single way to gain knowledge exists, a scientist doesn’t start with step one, then go to step two, and so on. • Instead, scientists have a huge collection of skills from which to choose.
Science in Action 2 Science Skills • Some of these skills include thinking, observing, predicting, investigating, researching, modeling, measuring, analyzing, and inferring. • Science also can advance with luck and creativity.
Science in Action 2 Science Methods • Investigations often follow a general pattern. • Most investigations begin by seeing something and then asking a question about what was observed.
Science in Action 2 Science Methods • To collect more information, scientists almost always make more observations. • They might build a model of what they study or they might perform investigations. • Often, they do both.
A. The scientific method includes observing, questioning, and researching; forming a hypothesis; predicting an outcome; investigating; analyzing; forming conclusions, communicating findings; and repeating the process.
-Steps often used to solve a problem in science (or any other problem) is called the scientific method.
-The scientific method was developed to help scientists organize the process of solving problems.
Science in Action 2 Questioning and Observing • Ms. Clark placed a sealed shoe box on the table of the laboratory. • Everyone in the class noticed the box. • Within seconds the questions flew.
Science in Action 2 Questioning and Observing • Investigations often begin by making observations and asking questions.
Predicting • Involves making an inference about a future event based on current evidence or past experience. • Weather forecasters makepredictions of the next day’s weather based on what has happened in the past.
- To infer something means to draw a conclusion based on what you observe.
Tracks like these are common in parts of New England and in the southwestern United States. What do you OBSERVE? What can you INFER?
infer • to draw a conclusion based on what you observe
C. A controlled experiment is one type of scientific investigation.
-Independent variables are those factors that can be changed in an experiment.
Variables • Question: What are variables? • Answer: A variable is something that changes • State a problem- Will a medication stop people from growing a third eyeball.
4 types of variables • Independent • Dependent • Controlled • Uncontrolled
Independent variable“Manipulated variable” • A variable that we change (manipulate) on purpose. • Example-Change the type of medication.
dependent variable“respondent variable” • A variable/result that changes. • We do not know what this is when we begin the experiment • Example- People stopped growing a third eyeball
Controlled variable“constant variable” • A variable that does not change throughout the experiment. Example- temperature Food Sleep Etc…
UN-Controlled variable • A variable that changes that we have no control over. Example- genetics
2. Constants are variables that remain unchanged. This is the factor is not changed in an experiment.
constant • variables that are not changed throughout an experiment
Science in Action 2 Variables and Constants • Variables are factors that can be changed in an experiment. Reliable experiments attempt to change one variable and observe the effect of this change on another variable. • The variable that is changed in an experiment is called the independent variable.
Science in Action 2 Variables and Constants • The dependent variable changes as a result of a change in the independent variable. • It usually is the dependent variable that is observed in an experiment. • Scientists attempt to keep all other variables constant—or unchanged. • The variables that are not changed in an experiment are called constants.
Science in Action 2 Laboratory Safety • In your science class, you will perform many types of investigations. • However, performing scientific investigations involves more than just following specific steps.
Science in Action 2 Laboratory Safety • You also must learn how to keep yourself and those around you safe by obeying the safety symbol warnings.
Science in Action 2 In a Laboratory • The most important safety advice in a science lab is to think before you act. • Always check with your teacher several times in the planning stage of any investigation.
Science in Action 2 In a Laboratory • Make sure you know the location of safety equipment in the laboratory room and how to use this equipment, including the eyewashes, thermal mitts, and fire extinguisher.
Science in Action 2 In the Field • Investigations also take place outside the lab, in streams, farm fields, and other places. • Scientists must follow safety regulations there, as well, such as wearing eye goggles and any other special safety equipment that is needed.
Science in Action 2 In the Field • Never reach into holes or under rocks. • Always wash your hands after you’ve finished your field work. Click image to view movie.
Science in Action 2 Why have safety rules? • Safety rules must be strictly followed, so that the possibility of an accident greatly decreases. However, you can’t predict when something will go wrong.
Science in Action 2 Why have safety rules? • You always should wear and use appropriate safety gear in the lab—whether you are conducting an investigation or just observing. • The most important aspect of any investigation is to conduct it safely.
Steps to the scientific method • 1. State the Problem • 2. Make observations • 3. Form a Hypothesis • 4. Do the Experiment • 5. Draw Conclusions
2 Do you remember? Scientific method steps • 1. State the Problem • 2. Make observations • 3. Form a Hypothesis • 4. Do the Experiment • 5. Draw Conclusions
Steps to the scientific method below: • 1. State the problem: The first step in the scientific method. Ask a question to be experimented.
2. Make Observations: Something noted in an experiment or noticed about the world around you.