Plants, Fungi and the colonization of Land - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Plants, Fungi and the colonization of Land

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  1. Plants, Fungi and the colonization of Land HBio Ch 17

  2. What is Kingdom Plantae?? • strictly Multicellular – specialized tissues and systems, including growth regions (meristems), true stems and leaves • Chlorophylls a & b, plus accessory pigments • Store food as starch, cellulose in cell walls • Sexual & Asexual reproduction

  3. Kingdom Protista vs. Kingdom Plantae

  4. Alternation of GenerationsSexual Reproduction - • Life cycle alternates between gametophyte generation (haploid) • makes gametes • Sporophyte generation (diploid) • makes spores

  5. embryophytes – multicellular, dependent embryo at gametophyte stage; differs from algae

  6. Algae life cyclealternation of generations

  7. How did life emerge from the sea?

  8. Symbiosis led to invasion of land- Fungal Partners - • Lichens • Cyanobacteria or algae + fungi • Pioneer species • Make soil • Ecological indicator

  9. Kingdom Fungi

  10. Kingdom Fungi • Mostly multicellular, one unicellular • Extracellular digestion/absorbtion - DECOMPOSERS • Sexual (mating strands) and asexual reproduction (fragmentation, budding) • All mass of a fungus is one cell type • Hyphae (singular), mycelium (mass of hyphae) • Mushroom is the “sexual organ” • Cell wall made of chiton (like insect exoskeleton) • More closely related to animals than to plants in physiology

  11. Pathogenic Fungus (mycosis)

  12. Where did plants come from?-green & red algae (K. Protista) charyophyceans

  13. What is needed to move out of the water environment of algae • What “concerns” do plants have that algae don’t?

  14. Earliest plants • Bryophytes • One simple step up from algae • Non-vascular • O&D • Haploid spores produced, not seeds

  15. Later - Vascular plants (bigger, better, faster, more) • Tracheophytes • Able to survive dryer conditions • A way to move water and nutrients • Xylem & phloem • Roots, stems, leaves • Symbiosis with fungi • mycorrhizae

  16. Protection from dessication • Cuticle • stomata

  17. And even later, a way to survive tough times… • Non-seed plants vs. seed plants

  18. Sexual Reproduction • Spore • Haploid tissue • can’t survive long without water • Seed • Embyro is diploid tissue • Embryo + endosperm (triploid tissue) + seed coat • Can wait for conditions to be right for survival

  19. And more complex ways of making & distributing those seeds… • Gymnosperm vs. Angiosperm (monocot/dicot)